- Discuss the major difference between open and closed systems
Open systems interact with the environment while the closed systems do not relate with the environment. Closed systems have hierarchies making it so mechanistic. It requires formal procedures to execute its activities. In open systems, activities happen depending on professionalism. They are very informal and it does not require many formal activities like communication to take place. Most activities happen in an informal way. In closed systems, the organizations do not respond to the external environmental changes. The factors within the closed system have relationship. Communication in closed systems follows a specified path. Authority and power are centralized in closed systems. Change in closed systems takes time. This is because it is only the management that has the mandate to make the changes in policies and processes.
- Define hierarchal and organic
Hierarchical refers to the way things happen following a stipulated chain of command. Aspects of the organization like communication follow a certain path and it has people who are responsible for communicating on behalf of the organization. Organic describes how the professional organizations are loose. Tasks of organic structures are not specialized. There are no written procedures and rules. Any person in the organization can do the available tasks. The teams and groups share the activities of the agency. Leadership, authority and decision-making occur without following any procedure. The results are the primary objectives of organic structures. All the members in the organization undertake the decisions. Decisions arise from individuals or teams through brainstorming sessions. The top executes of the organization only perform figurehead roles of the organization. Interactions in organic structures are horizontal. Leadership is peer oriented in organic structures and every member in the organization has the right to contribute. Hierarchical organizations have rules that every person in the organization must follow. Power, communication and authority flow vertically in hierarchical organizations. Loyalty is a requirement in hierarchical organizations. Policies and commands come from the top management and the subordinates follow them. The top management because of the belief that expertise and knowledge exist in top management owns major policies.
- Define organizational mission, policy and procedures
Organization mission refers to a statement that an agency or the organization desires to achieve within a specified period. A mission allows the organization to direct all the efforts towards its purpose. Policies in the organization explain all the activities the organization does in order to achieve the vision. Procedures give detailed plans in a stepwise manner. It allows an organization to implement the policies it hopes to achieve.
- Discuss the basics of agency budgeting
Public budgeting requires organizations and public agencies to submit their requests for the entities they serve. The budgets require approval, implementation and auditing to meet the standards.
- Discuss the difference between the formal and informal structure of the organization.
Informal structures of an organization refer to activities, goals and purpose that evolve in the organization. These activities, goals and purpose have no official recognition or approval from the organization executives. Formal structure refers to the goals, purpose and activities that the organization supports and recognizes. The formal structure has a legal mandate from the top executives of the organization.