Explain the concept of federalism, the separation of powers, and the role of interest groups in general
Federalism refers to a system of government that is made up of the central and regional government with each having distinct powers. To maintain the independence of these two governments, the concept of separation of powers comes in to enhance the distribution of power within the different arms of the government. These arms include the executive, the judiciary, and the legislature (Baker & Preston, 2005). Ideally, each of these three arms has their separate functions and thus it is of paramount importance to protect their independence that is most likely to be affected by encroachment by either of the other branches. This way, the separation of powers serves a critical role in ensuring that each branch sticks to its role.
Furthermore, the notion of separation of powers is of great importance in regulating the central and the federal government taking in mind that each government has an individual function. In essence, it enhances federalism by ensuring that the two government exercises some sought of independence although the regional government is under the central government. It can thus be noted that separation of powers is a subunit within federalism.
In the case of increased gang-related crime in my city, it is the mandate of the national government to restore security as put forth by the constitution. More precisely, the American Constitution states that it is the role of the nation government to provide security for its people. On the same note, the interest groups, through the elected officials will also have a crucial role in influencing the government to heighten security in the city.
Describe a variety of public policy theories that may guide the creation of the policy development
Many theories guide the creation of policy formulation some of which include group theory, elite theory, and institutional theory (Baker & Preston, 2005). To start with, the group theory requires a few groups that are seen to have power and well-organized strongholds over the government in that they are most likely to maneuver their way into public policy selection and achievement. On the other hand, elite theory seeks to clarify power relationships in modern society. The theory puts forth that a small group of individuals, mostly the economic elites hold some sought of power that is independent of the society’s electro democratic process. The society may also channel their demands to the government by use of competent institutions, which are chosen by use of democratic participation, bureaucratic specification as well as judicial adjudication. Among these three theories, group theory would be the most useful in guiding the society into compelling the government to deal with security issues in the city.
Explain how you go about analyzing the problem and a variety of policy instruments that could be used
Of importance in analyzing, the problem of deteriorating security in the city would be to gather public opinion regarding the matter. Afterward, I would use policy design tools like inducement and sanction, capacity building tools as well as authority tools to compel the government deal with security issues in the city. For example, I would apply sanctions to the elected officials for their failure in maintaining security in the city.
Describe the types of assessments tools available to evaluate the policy
In evaluating the policy, I would use tools like people’s freedom, equity, effectiveness, social acceptability, and efficiency (Baker & Preston, 2005). In doing so, I would establish whether principles of fairness and equity were adhered to in the allocation of the policy benefits and risks within the affected population. I would also ascertain the degree of freedom together with social acceptability of the public towards the policy.
How implementation and budgets may be impacted
Moreover, these evaluation tools would be of great significance in determining the budgetary scope in the implementation process. For example, in assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of the policy, it would be important to evaluate the budgetary process by outline the possible costs and benefits. More importantly, I would establish whether the implementation process was cost effective or else whether it was worth investing in. This would only be possible if benefits outweigh costs besides the outcomes being desirable. Finally, it would be wise to monitor the implementation process to make necessary adjustments that may be required.
Baker, R. F., Michaels, R. M., & Preston, E. S. (2005). Public policy development: Linking the technical and political processes. New York: Wiley.