Martin Landau, Redundancy, Rationality, and the Problem of Duplication and Overlap, 1969
THESIS: The main focus of the article is redundancy. Today the reformers are striving to achieve the goal of creating a smooth, efficient government with the exclusion of duplicative expenditures. The definition of redundancy is used by different authors with different perception. Landau explored the definition to get the right meaning by using it in government or political system context. The term redundancy generally has a negative implication. Landau gives his perception and considers redundancy a necessity when it will be used in the context government agencies and political system. Landau justified his perception by supporting its argument with some examples that are over lapping intelligence agencies at the federal level, the branches and layers of government like federal, state and local government, etc. with these examples he justified that redundancy is useful in some contexts.
According to Harry Nyquist, the redundancy is a useless portion of the message that can be deleted for the message without the loss of information. (302)
The damage imposed can be too much; the load of blunder can be too great. (310)
Reforming an agency, “combining comparable functions, “removing repetition”, and “commonality” are influential slogans which have a clear appeal. (312)
This article has got a great importance in understanding the value of redundancy in the context of government or legal system. This has created the sense of using redundancy in some other contexts as well to analyze the necessity of redundancy in others systems.
The information and realization of landau in the article is very analytical and the suggestions along with examples for justification he used are very research based. The redundancy in legal system seems very important. It can be important in other systems as well, but it needs to be explored by some one like Landau did. Another example that could explain the redundancy importance is the level of courts in the city like City Court, High Court and Supreme Court.
Jeffert L. Pressman and Aaron Wildavsky, Implementation, 1973
THESIS: To hire the hardcore unemployed minorities of Oakland Pressman and Wildavsky examine the struggle of policy implementation of the economic development administration. The issues were examined by the author that the Economic Development Authority had with this specific case as well as analyze exactly what happened to cause the program with such great expectations to generate such insufficient results. The implementation in Oakland was done with the purpose of implementing such policies to different regions to analyze its feasibility.
The considerable definition to us that what Webster and Roget say about the implementation, implementation means to accomplish, carryout, fulfill, produce, complete of action plan. (340)
When goals are not clear and understandable, one explanation is the declaration of out of order implementation. (341)
It is not possible to work with the policy that excludes any implementation and the policy that includes all implementation. (340)
This article is providing the ground for understanding policy and implementation separately. The focus of the study revolves around the implementation of the policy. The demonstration in the Oakland was to get the results of policy implementation for the employment of minorities gives the ground to understand that if it is to be implemented to some other region then it would be feasible or not.
Alice M. Rivlin, Systematic Thinking for Social Action, 1971
THESIS: Alice M. Rivlin works on identifying the contributions of the systematic analysis in the government’s decision making on social action like education, health, manpower training and income maintenance. She examined and indicated that where the system analysts help to find the solutions and where they couldn’t help because of insufficient or inadequate information.
Systematic experimentation should be considered as significant activity for federal government if the objective is to attain the breakthroughs in the delivery of social service. (328)
The competence of collection of money by the federal government is matched by the competence of disbursement by the federal government. (330)
It is difficult to examine the effectiveness of decentralization until the attempt is made to build up the measures for performances and use them as incentives. (332)
The National Performance Review, From Red Tape to Results: Creating a Government That Works Better and Costs Less, 1993
THESIS: The national performance review was designed with the purpose changing the methods and procedures of government that it applies to achieve the results. It has been clearly understandable with the title that national performance review is concerned with the enhancements in the government’s way of working to achieve the results more efficiently with less cost. The report is based on 100 of the most significant actions and recommendations for making the system effective and efficient.
According the Brookings institution book the U.S government not only suffers with budget deficit but also with performance deficit. (556)
Good people still exist in the Federal government but they are trapped in a bad system. (557)
Politics strengthens the problem of the country. (558)
National performance review has a great importance to enhance the procedures and methods that follows by the government. The enhancement in the methods and procedures here refers to the application of effectiveness and efficiency to achieve the objectives. This is very important for the government to constantly identify the ways that can prove beneficial for the state. This report has the tendency to overcome all the issues that are the reason of cost wastage in government projects.