# 1 Compare the research process of Fig. 4.1 in Ch. 4 of Research Methods for Business to the research design of Fig. 6.2 in Ch. 6 and discuss their similarities and differences. Why might one refer to the business research process as a nonlinear process?
The research process in figure 4.1 employs a non-linear approach whereas the fig 6.2 employs a linear approach. In fig 4.1, there is bound to be changes in the data collected or hypothesis or even research requirements hence the probability that at some point in time if disparities or wrong data is gathered, there will be need to do back and re-examine the same. Fig 6.2, on the other hand, defines a linear approach; data is unlikely to change. Once data has been collected and conclusion generated then that is it. This is a quantitative research while the former is a qualitative research.
A business research can be preferred as a non-linear if the process does not follow a predefined manner. A linear research process will follow a set of predefined route. However, non-linear will involve going back to the already passed part for re-examination and analysis of the problem or the solution provided. A business research process can be said to be non-linear if there will be need to go back and redefine some applied parameters or hypotheses. If the actors in question change, then there is need for re visiting some parts. Such a process can be defined as non-linear (Kothari, 2008).
# 2. How would you define research? What is the purpose of business research? How has the Internet changed the quality and quantity of research?
Research is the systematic application of investigative skills and methods in a predefined manner with an open mind in order to establish novel facts to provide solutions to problems whether existing or new or come up with new theories using proven scientific methods.
Business research purpose is to establish new facts concerning a particular phenomenon in order to use the new knowledge acquired for the betterment of a business venture. It employs the discovery, interpretation and development of new methods that would result in establishment of new knowledge, explanation or providing reason for a certain phenomenon or to develop new techniques of approach to certain phenomenon (Kothari, 2008).
The Internet has contributed to the increase in the number of research done as well as widened the scope of most research. The Internet offers many resources that are used for research purpose hence have made the process of researching very silent as compared to the contrary. However, with the advantage of provision of many materials for research that the Internet has offered, there is also the risk of dependence on the Internet at the expense of carrying out field research. Fieldwork still form a greater part of the research process. However, relying majorly on the Internet is bound to affect the quality of research results realized. Luckily, so far this is not happening mostly. The quality, therefore, of the researches done by use of Internet is of high quality so far. This is brought about by the fact that large quantities of material are available and that these research material emanate globally (Sheri 2008).
# 3 Should an organization create research testing for all problems confronting the business? Explain. When is it appropriate to use exploratory research? Can decision making be accomplished by using only descriptive research? Why or why not?
Developing research testing for major problems faced by an organization is the key to understanding the cause of the problem and offering solutions for the same. All major problems can therefore be research-tested for an effective solution. However, minor problems need not be researched on. In case of similar problems that arise and there is preexisting research that was used to solve a previous problem, there would be no need to car out a new research test, instead application of the solutions from previous research can be done (Sheri 2008).
Exploratory research is suitable for use in case where a business needs to venture in new domain in which limited knowledge is available. It is generally used to research on an area that has not been clearly defined or researched before.
Decision-making cannot be accomplished effectively by use of descriptive research alone. In the case, descriptive research describes the problem or the domain in question but fail to provide the effective strategies for dealing with the domain challenge in question.
# 4 What is the reliability of a measurement? What is the validity of a measurement? Can a measurement be valid if it is not reliable? Explain
Reliability of a measurement refers to the consistency in measurements or a set of measurement or measuring devices. It is the confidence that the application of the same procedures will always result to consistent outcome for a particular domain rule.
Validity of measurement on the other part refers to the extent to which a measurement or a concept of particular domain is a true representative of the real world and the rules applicable apply to the real world.
A measurement cannot be valid if it is not reliable (Kothari, 2008). Reliability in other terms imply the extent to which a test yield consistent results give a repetitive action on similar measurements. Errors are bound to be realized in any measurement. The aim therefore is to reduce or minimize the errors. If this can be done, the reliability would be achieved. If not, no reliability would be achieved meaning that our data sets contain errors. A data set that contains errors cannot be said to be valid.
Kothari, C.R. (2008).Research methodology: methods and techniques. California. CA: New Age International.
Sheri, L.J. (2008).Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach. New York. NY: Cengage Learning.