The system can be defined as a group of elements, which cooperate in order to achieve a specific goal. The system is considered to be not only the sum of its parts. Moreover, these parts of the system interact with each other and form the properties of system. The main goal of the system is to transform the information or energy into planned result or product, which will be used within the system or outside the system. Systems can be different from each other. It depends on their degree of complication, self-sufficiency, and adaptation. In a closed system, the components have fixed relationship, but there is no cooperation with the environment. Open systems include the cooperation with the environment and the cooperation of components. Moreover, these systems can be self-regulating. Human organizations are considered to be open systems. Human organizations are very complex systems due to their characteristics (Assessing Culture: Week 2, 2016).
There is a specific model of open systems. This model shows that the environments have a great influence on inputs, inner operations, and outputs. Moreover, the organizational inputs can play the role of inputs for maintenance and development. The members and the environments have a great impact on the organizations. The elements of the system are connected and they have an impact on each other. The organizations have the ability to change all the time. Organizations are successful if they are able to adapt to the environments, and manage their operations. There are some units and levels in the organizations, and each of them can be considered as a system. General environment can be described as the outside force, which is able to influence the accomplishment of the organizational objectives in direct or indirect way. The industry structure includes the outside forces, which can have an impact on an organization in a direct way. It also includes customers, suppliers, and products. There six components of the organization design. The first one is the strategy. It is the way, which an organization uses in order for its resources to gain a competitive advantage. The second one is structure. It shows how resources are used for the attainment of the task. The third one is technology. It is the way, which an organization uses in order to transform inputs into products. The fourth one is human resource system. It is used for selecting, appraising, and rewarding the members of the organization. The fifth one is measurement system. The main aim of this component is to gather and evaluate the information about the activities of the organization members. The final one is the organizational culture. It includes presuppositions and values, which are shared by the members of the organization (Assessing Culture: Week 2, 2016)
The action research has lots of other names, but they are all just the variations on theme. Action research is when people see the problem through, take some actions to solve it, and see whether they are successful. The action research is primarily used in real situations and experimental studies, because the main goal of this research is to solve the real problems. The social scientists also use the action research in order to conduct a preliminary research. Moreover, different people choose this research when the circumstances require flexibility and the participation of people in the research itself (Assessing Culture: Week 2, 2016).
This approach was received from one of Trist’s works. This approach is based on reconstruction of the constructive relationships between actors in the social surroundings. Moreover, one of the main goal of this approach is to bring about all the stakeholder and parties (Assessing Culture: Week 2, 2016).
Assessing Culture: Week 2. (2016).