I.2 The cultivation analysis theory was developed by George Gerbener. This is a social theory that aims at the examination of long-term effects of television. According to Gerbener this theory is based on proposition that states that the more the time people spend on a television the more they are likely to be carried along to believe in the social message being portrayed in the television. Cultivation exposes people to misconception of the unreality in the world.
There are several elements that make this theory outstanding and reliable for significance in the media world. One of the elements that make it outstanding is the possession of cultural indicators. These are effects that define the identity of the developed effects of the television on its viewers. In most cases, social behaviors are anchored on watching or listening to certain messages. The theory is also based on exclusive study and research of certain behaviors that have been influenced by the television. It is also built upon exclusive assumption of the presence of objective reality as well as value adding research. This is one of the principles that define the behavior of televisions.
Understanding this theory would be extremely significant to individuals who are exposed to the media. It educates individuals on the effects of addiction with extensive exposure to televisions. It assists individuals in understanding what are the best television-programs to watch and which ones should they avoid completely. Television stations hosting positive programs are likely to exert positive influence to the individual watching while negative programs will automatically bring forth negative influence. Therefore, cultivation analysis theory would assist an individual to choose the best program among several television programs.
II.2 The radio industry and music industry are extremely intertwined. This means that each of these industries is extensively influential to the wellbeing of the other. The positivity of each of these industries is extremely significant to the development of the other. They cooperate in different ways.
One of the points through which these industries benefit each other is through marketing. It is the dream of every radio station to become the best within its locality as well as the world. However, it is also the dream of every musician becoming the most famous musician in the globe. Therefore, each of these parties may benefit from the fame of the other. For example when a musician becomes famous every radio station will always try to play that musician’s songs. This will automatically make various listeners switch to the radio station as they seek to listen to the song. In return, the radio station will always benefit massively from the musician. On the other hand, musicians will always look for an opportunity to market their songs through the best radio station. This will assure them of a market since these radio stations are listened to by a lot of people.
However, they are usually involved in conflicts where one may target to tarnish the name of the other. This may come along when musicians target the media with abusive messages. A song may not be worth to be played in a radio station following its abusive message. Upon rebuking this song there may arise a conflict between the music industry and the radio industry. Also, since these industries are used for various promotional messages a disagreement may always arise when the one of them is favored at a given instance.
II.3 There are extensive transitions being experienced in the recording industry. There are various elements that may be used to indicate the differences that are being witnessed in the recording industry in the 20th as well as the 21st century. There have been changes in business, marketing, recording styles, as well as delivery of messages and tones for artists.
In the past, recording was taken as a common thing and people did not worry so much of the additives that would make the record outstanding. The recording industry has changed following the intensity of the changes being experienced in the industry. Music listeners have various tastes where each individual is willing to listen to a given form of music. Therefore, the industry has to adopt means through which different people will be satisfied by the form of music being played.
Also, the industry has been influenced by various inventions that have been forth in the technology industry. Recording has been evolving from time in various manners. With the introduction of new devices which can store records like compact disks and flash disks there exclusive indication that the industry is undergoing massive changes.
As time passes, people are becoming more sensitive to messages as well as tones of the artists. Therefore, a method has to be invented to ensure there is exclusive method through which message may be transformed to an attractive one that every citizen would wish to be associated with. The tones of the artists must be managed in an extremely pleasant manner. This can only happen with exclusive creativity in the recording industry.
II.7 For a long time, film and television have been working together. This means that they have been influencing each other’s activities. Their collaborative performance has been of extensive significance to the media fraternity. Following the exclusive relationship that has existed for a long time between these two media tools it seems there is some development that may gain access to film and television.
However, there relationship may not continue for all that long time. This is based on the improvements that are being witnessed in the media industry from time to time. Currently the technology is improving at an extremely alarming rate. As time passes, the film industry may be overtaken by other technological innovations where there significance may be shuttered. On the other hand, the television technology is improving from time to time. This means there is exclusive possibility that televisions will opt for the most reliable modern technology that will substitute the film.
Their relationship may remain intact if the film industry will be ready to shift to an improved status to suit the requirements of an improved television technology. Films are known of their large sizes which are not in line with the memory they have. There are improvements that are likely to come up as competitors for films based on reduced size. If the invented elements will suit the television technology at that moment, the complementary relationship between the television and film will be shunned. Therefore, it is not guaranteed that concrete relationship will continue to exist between the television and film.
III.2 Vertical integration is a technique where different companies are united through a common owner. This means that an individual has the chance of developing different companies with each of them manufacturing a unique product. This assists a company in the business of targeting to dominate a given market through provision of various products under one owner. On the other hand, a monopoly is a form of business where an individual develops a product that dominates a given market making the individual the sole producer or supplier of a given product. Therefore, these terms are similar in the definition of dominance of a given market following being the sole producer of given products.
Both business practices are negatively influential on the consumers of media. For vertical integration, manufacturing different goods in the same supply chain may undermine quality. The quality of a good may be influenced by specialization. Manufacturing variety of goods may deny a product excellence. In the media industry, specialization is also required so that a media house may suit the competition in the market. However, if the concentration is distributed to different productions failure will be on the way for the company.
Monopolies will expose media consumers to demerits through biased production. They become dictators of what customers will listen or watch. This is a demerit created by lack of competition. With ample competition platform, media consumers will be exposed to adverse innovations, which will make them enjoy the media content. Therefore, the media industry should be opened up to creativity that will make consumers delighted of media innovations.
IV.1 Technological convergence refers to the process through which certain technological elements continue changing over a period of time towards the same form of technology. There are various that may be influenced by the technology with the aim of producing one major element that superb and one that is likely to bring adverse changes required in the specific industry. Among the elements that may change towards the same direction are sounds, data as well as musicians tones.
Convergence being a form of change, it comes with various improvements on how certain issues happen in the real world. Once different elements evolve at the same time, there is likelihood that they are headed to the same direction. Technology in the media fraternity mostly changes with a force of following a given direction. In this case, different elements in the media will change with the aim of settling to one of the most recent form of technology. This will mean there are exclusive advancements and there will automatically be improvements on the status of various elements of performance.
Digital communication is one of the platforms that have witnessed exclusive advancement. There have been unique movements that have brought in exclusive creativity to merge elements that could have not been thought to be possible. It has been possible to combine text, audio and video to operate under the same platform whether wired, wireless or through the fiber optic cable. The digital convergence of the news media has been alarming and exclusive as it has brought the massively required communications as well as delivery of crucial messages.
V.2 Shield laws are forms of law that protect reporters from being forced to give private information in state court. The shield law gives a reporter the confidence of holding on into given information with all privacy guarded. There are no instances under the shield law that a reporter may disclose sensitive information to the court through being forced to give the information. They are not also required to testify about given information that they feel being private to them.
One reason that makes shield law to be a state law and federal law is following the uniqueness of each state. This means that different issues will carry different weight in different states. The issue of journalism is extremely different in various states. There are various people who will have different views over certain critical elements when it comes to media coverage. Therefore, the uniqueness of the media status in different states will call for uniqueness in the process of dealing with the issues that come up. Also state laws are able to exhaustively protect the rights of citizens in comparison to the federal law which is critically sensitive when it comes to passing of a judgment.
Based on the understanding gathered from critical analysis of this subject, shield laws are extremely fundamental. They form the most critical element in journalism. Following the sensitivity of some of the subjects that journalists handle sometimes there is extensive need for their protection. The effectiveness of these laws may not be realized if these laws are not practiced in the locality. This means there is need to have these laws shielded at the state level unlike the case where they would be guarded by the federal law.
V.3 Journalism has faced adverse changes in the modern world. There are exclusive improvements that are being witnessed in the area from time to time. Some of the most recent improvements are New journalism and the 24/7 news cycle. However, these changes have not been enticing to the journalism fraternity. These advancements have been negative at one point or the other. The main opposition that similar changes have witnessed is through negativity developed by journalists. They believe that their ethics are being eroded everyday and it is becoming extremely difficult for them to carry along with their duties as it used to be in the past.
One of the areas of ethics that has been touched is the privacy for information. Currently, journalists are required to explain the sources of their information. They are even involved in discussion on the credibility of the information that they give. Also, new journalism has been engulfed by influence of the management of the media house. This means that the journalist may be dictated on what to broadcast by the seniors in the organization. This goes against the principle where journalists should relay reliable information. The other ethical issue that may arise from the improvements being witnessed in the journalism sector is extension of broadcasting time. There has been exclusive exploitation of some people as media companies are not willing to hire new journalists. Instead, they want to maximize on the available employees, which exposes some journalists to exclusively exhaustive operations. However, compensation has not been reflected among employees even after being exposed to massive transition which is becoming expensive to journalists.
VI. 3 Mediated news refers to a form of news that is given through the media while non-mediated news refers to a form of news that is given through the other sources apart from the media. There are exclusive differences in the forms of information being covered by media and the covered by other sources. Mediated news is usually trusted more than non-mediated news.
Mediated news is usually very sensitive and people aught be serious on the kind of news they listen to every time. This becomes practical when people ignore the question of who created given news. It is the highest time that people got aware of the sensitivity of experience in handling news. It matters a lot on who covers given news. Experienced journalists will always have a unique method of handling sensitive news. They are usually ready to answer extreme questions that may arise from a given issue being covered in the media.
Mediated news is extremely fundamental in exercising democracy in any country. The willingness must be there to ensure that all information that is sensitive to a country is given through the right channel. In this case, the most outstanding channel is public media. This will show transparency and the willingness of the government to work with the public. For example, in the United States the immigration law has been challenged several times. In this case, explanations will be required on the validity of various arguments that leaders bring up. This may only be achieved through excellent mediation of the topic.
VI.4 The United States of America is an open society. This is a form of society where individuals are free to air their personal decisions. This means that the citizens of the given country are exposed to thoughts that do not go beyond the principles defined by the society. The United States qualifies at this point through various ways.
One of the ways is that the United States has exposed its citizens to adverse creativity that citizens are allowed to expose their ideas to the country. If one has a problem with the way activities are being conducted in the country there is need for considering the most outstanding move of challenging the issue openly. There is no rebuke will be paid to the individual. Whenever issues are not handled accordingly in the public or private sector in the United States there is an allowance to seek clarification from the government or the body involved with the issue at stake. In the United States, media has all the freedom to handle different situations as they arise. However, the information being covered must be as original as possible. There should be no platform under which the media should give negative information. For example, through the openness of the United States’ society there is need to challenge the dominant negativity inclined to ignoring new journalists that are coming up but paying exclusive attention on the already experienced journalist. This may be challenged through bringing up exclusive analysis of the issue.