Overview of communicable disease (Tuberculosis)
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacteria is the type that attacks majorly the lungs, but can also affect the other parts of the body such as the kidney, spine and brain. If the condition is not treated on time, the result could be fatal. The spread of the infection is via the air transmission. The implication is that such condition can easily spread from one person to another. For such air transmission to occur, the patient with the disease must be a person with an active Tuberculosis infection.
The person serving as host would have to sneeze, talk or cough to transfer the droplets. The common symptoms of the tuberculosis which affects the lung is the persistent chronic cough more than three weeks or longer, weight loss, loss of appetite, coughing up of blood stains or mucus stained with blood, weakness, fatigue, fever and night sweats. Symptoms found in other forms of tuberculosis that affects other parts of the body are quite different from the lung tuberculosis' symptoms. It is important for people to understand that tuberculosis do not spread via shaking someone's hand, sharing of drink or food, kissing, using the same toilet seats or sharing of toothbrushes (CDC, 2014).
The latent state and active state of tuberculosis infection is quite different from one another. Patient with latent infection is patients that have the TB bacteria within their body at a latent state, but do not get sick. The reason for this is because such individual inhaled the bacteria, but his immune system fights against allowing the bacteria to grow further hence ensuring such person become a person with latent TB infections. The most difficult aspect of this is that such patient with latent infection can still later change into an active state if such body state allows the bacteria to multiply and thus change into an active state.
People with TB disease become active once the immune system is compromised and allow multiplication of the bacteria. Such person does not need to contact the infected droplet again before becoming a patient with an active TB infection. Patient that did not complete the antibacterial medications is also liable to have an occurrence of reactivation the bacteria anytime the bacteria load is enough to cause an active infection.
The management of the latent and active tuberculosis differs. The managing physician will plan to ensure that the individual with the latent disease is treated so that the tuberculosis will not develop into disease. In the case of an active infection, the patients will have to be treated by ensuring he or she takes several drugs for several months (6-9 month). Patient will have to finish the medication to avoid any form of incomplete treatment because that could result into reactivation into an active state. The main form of management is via vaccination and the use of antibiotics for the active states.
The vaccination is majorly for the infants with the use of the BCG vaccine. The antibiotics that are used are the isoniazid and rifampicin. The treatment of active state is via the combination therapy while a single antibiotic can be used for the latent state. Patients must be advice to complete the dosage to prevent any form of development of drug-resistant state. The incidence of the infection in the United States is high among blacks’ especially non-Hispanic blacks in the United States with 1533 reported case of TB in the 2011. The rate was about 6.3 cases per 100,000 populations. This is about seven times higher than the rate seen in white (CDC, 2014).
The determinants of health and explanation of how those factors contribute to the development of disease
The health determinants are diverse factors that affect the health of individuals and the communities. It is important to understand the fact that these factors are what determines if someone will be healthy or not. The circumstances such as the environment where we live, the state of the environment, our genetics, income and educational level are some of those factors that determine the health of the individual (WHO, 2014). The health determinants are usually classified as (a) the social and economic environment (b) the physical environment, (c) the person's individual characteristics and behaviors (WHO, 2014).
One of the major factors that serve as the determinant of the health is the income and social status. People with higher income are likely to have better health when compared to the poor especially when we talk about those people to get infected by TB. There is always a greater gap between the rich and the poor in terms of their health.
The education which is another factor relating to the social factor determines health of people. Educated patients are likely to be linked with better health when compared to the people with low educational level. This is simply because of the fact that most of people that are educated will understand the factors that can lead to contacting the TB while people that are not educated or with low education might not be informed about to the causes and the need to manage the condition on time.
In terms of the physical environment, people that live where there is access to safe water, clean air and safe environment are likely to have less risk to contacting tuberculosis when compared to others in poor environment. This is because people at such poor physical environment are likely to have infectious environment. Another factor relating to those at the safe environment are likely to have control over their working conditions.
The social support networks which are made up of the families, friends and communities also help to influence the health status of the people that live in such environment. These group of social support can be linked with healthy or non-health status depending on the factor and the relationship of the individual with the social support or the culture of the friends and families around.
Genetic factor plays less important role in determining the health of the people relating to the tuberculosis disease. Genetics most times affects the lifespan, health and development of different forms of disease or conditions simply because it controls most of the basic changes that our body works on. As a result of this influence genetics has on the body, it can influence the immune system hence leading to lower immune state that tend to cause increase risk of tuberculosis infection.
The epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease (Tuberculosis)
The epidemiologic triangle model of disease causation relates to the host, agent and the environment. In terms of triangle relating to the tuberculosis infection, the host of the infection is the humans that are usually affected, while the agents responsible for the disease or capable of causing the disease. The agent is the mycobacterium tuberculosis which is the bacteria or infectious agent. The environmental factor is that pathway such as the air we breathe in. This is simply because of the fact that the active pulmonary TB is usually transmitted via the air resulting from expulsion of the infectious aerosol droplets from the infected patient.
The role of community health nurse in management of the tuberculosis
Community nurses have several roles to play in helping to manage the issues relating to the tuberculosis spread. Community nurses can play a role of helping to increase the awareness of the community. This will help the members of such community to understand what is in stock for them in terms of their right to access effective TB care. Nurses can also make people aware of the availability of the DOTS therapy or their access to some of the environmental conditions. The action of the community nurses is that which helps to prevent the rapid escalation, especially when it is noticed that incidences in on the rise. They can also help in assessing, diagnosing and treating or referring the TB patients. Community nurses can also help to contribute to the management in the areas of identification, causes and distribution of the condition.
One national agency or organization that addresses the tuberculosis and contributes to resolving and reducing the impact of disease
Centers for disease control and prevention is an American organization that helps to control and prevent diseases via various means. The CDC helps to control and reduce the risk associated with the tuberculosis. Some of the means used by the CDC to contribute to the reduction of the disease is via provision of information, data and statistics. There are several publications and products provided by the center to help inform people about the problem. There are also some form of education and training instituted to ensure people are well informed. All the provided information helps in reducing the associated risk that could be associated with the condition.
Advanced practice centers (2014). Epidemiologic triangle model of disease causation. Lesson 1: Overview of environmental health principles.
Retrieved from http://www.umncphp.umn.edu/preparedness/site/lesson1/screen4.htm
CDC, (2014). Tuberculosis in Blacks. Fact Sheets.
Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/default.htm#infection
Jatin, M (2012). Pulmonary tuberculosis. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. PubMed Health.
WHO, (2014). The determinants of health. Health impact assessments (HIA).
Retrieved from http://www.who.int/hia/evidence/doh/en/