The Ministry of Health (MOH), Guinea on March 21st, 2014 informed the World Health Organization (WHO) about the growing occurrence of Ebola virus disease (EVD). The initial report of the cases derived from Gueckedou, Kissidougou, and Macenta in the overseas district, a vicinity that establishes the boundary with Liberia, and Sierra Leone; and late in the principal town of Conakry. The samples of blood gathered from the early cases and after examination revealed favorable results for Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) species by RT-PCR at Educational Institute of Pasteur in Lyon, France. The MOH of Liberia confirmed the initial infections of EVD on March 30th, 2014, whereas, the Sierra Leone’s MOH started submitting the cases from May 25th, 2014. The span of the continued occurrence is extraordinary as the studies revealed over thirteen-hundred and sixty cases and seven-hundred and sixty-seven demises in the three affected economies from March to July 2014. The domestic official bodies in Nigeria worked nearly with WHO and its associates to devise the necessary measures for controlling Ebola. The MOHs of Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia accompanied with World Health Organization and other associates, promoted a coordinated address to the occurrence. WHO as well alarmed additional economies about the occurrence of Ebola and emphasized strict observations for any disease that is in line with a biological hemorrhagic fever, particularly along land boundaries.
The explanation to pandemic outlined by World Health Organization (WHO) is the global spread of a fresh syndrome. The arrival of influenza pandemic is subject to the global arrival of a new influenza virus, and majority of the individuals do not have the protection. The pandemic planning of influenza remained in consideration since last few years in UK. The planning checked by the H1N1 (2009) influenza pandemic though compared to the last pandemics of influenza, the presence of H1N1 showed extensive mildness. The address to the H1N1 (2009) influenza pandemic was the domain of an autonomous evaluation monitored by Dame Deirdre Hine. The pandemics of influenza remained uncommon over the last century; the chances exist for the emergence of a new pandemic at any time. The pandemic planning helps to address usual pressures including uncertain climate and winter infection in the context of influenza and improve usual corporate proceedings. Hence, the pandemic planning is vital to face the broad emergency challenges. The outcomes of the mutual public efforts in the H1N1 (2009) influenza pandemic enabled most of the people and organizations to gain radical knowledge of the challenges that may arise due to pandemic.
There are specific trials in procuring accurate information and consultation while a pandemic. The public tendency is greater, the format of syndrome expansion showed variation across the economy, and the scientific gains revealed the limitation initially. The communications technology aided to distinguish health and additional networks across the four economies of the UK. The UK govt. exerted efforts mutually with the established administrations and generated an influenza pandemic communications strategy that focused on explicating the outbreak, entrenchment of confidence and, decrease the danger of contamination. Every communication technology exposed the above average quality and cost-containment through utilizing the highly significant and credible methods of sending knowledge in an array of situations to multiple audiences. The technologies enabled individuals to strengthen comprehension and promote adequate attitude without any panic.
What is a Pandemic plan?
The pandemic plan encompasses varied liabilities according to the national and international provisions of pandemic situations. The individual involved in pandemic planning while inter-pandemic durations outline the usual reply to the frequent appearance of syndrome. The pandemic planning becomes crucial when WHO establishes the occurrence of a fresh virus and its significant impact on individuals. The public authorities time and again submit their findings of National Pandemic Planning Committee (NPPC) to World Health Organization (WHO) and as well procure the duplicate copies of their pandemic plans. WHO if finds necessary call local conferences to perform tasks with domestic staff on the advancement of plan.
Preparing for an emergency
The emerging epidemic of Ebola in the previous months improved the possibility that the residents of European Union and visitors may face danger for infections. The danger of Ebola for travellers and residents is effectively addressable if they adhere to the preferred safety measures. The travellers and residents in the EVD-affected countries execute a danger of reflection to EVD in healthcare facilities. The extent of this danger associates to effective monitoring and implementation of disease control measures.
The study proposes that individuals show preference for authenticated attitudes in their comprehension of dangers; the pandemic exposes to them, for instance, the belief of individuals for infection from influenza. Individuals demand for instruments and information access in order to effectively respond to situations. Hence, the communications technology is highly significant when individuals explicate precisely as to why particular activities are secured and why individuals demanded for the communications technology. If people comprehend the dangers but failed to diminish them, then chances exist for the rise in the up-taking of unfavorable attitudes, that is, the presentation of a GP surgery for evaluation and care with the associated stress that is over the services. Moreover, behavioral sciences reveal that the communication technology does not show rational model of individual attitude, where knowledge disseminated and individuals carefully weighed up the advantages and disadvantages of behaving on that knowledge. Awareness does not show association always with action, and methods like illustrated in the report of MINDSPACE executed in the pandemic communication strategies. For instance, the illustration to the normality of taking an immunization reveals positive influence than emphasis on non-compliance because it reduces the influence of social standards. The UK public bodies made efforts during a pandemic to utilize a broad array of media to deliver information appropriately to individuals, to make them busy in dialogue, and to locate domains of concern. The information was accessible to the general public through with the help of telephone facility and additional communicating mediums. The UK govt. as well executed frequent press briefing, fundamental web portals, and social media and additional information channels in order to approach a broad range of individuals and promoted credible and in time reporting.
Preventing spread of the disease in the community
Infection-control measures and travel & trade restrictions
There were 8,997 EVD cases reported from December 2013 to October 2014 in seven economies of the world including Nigeria, Guinea, Senegal, Liberia, Spain, USA, and Sierra Leone that revealed 4493 deaths of individuals according to World Health Organization. Moreover, one other case investigated in the USA, Dallas, October 2014, in a second healthcare staff. The concerned staff examined and positive outcomes attained in the context of Ebola virus after the initial care in USA. There is no present indication that confirms the healthcare association transmission is due to the transition in the transmissibility of the Ebola. The present preferred virus control instruments remained favorable upon their strict application.
The minimization of disease infection in community is possible through discouraging non-mandatory travel to the pretentious zones and emphasizing EVD preventive measures in the group. The travellers to the EVD-influenced zones expected to locate adequate in-economy healthcare facilities before travelling due to improved danger of infection therein. The endorsement of WHO pertaining to the announcement of a Public Health Event of International Concern (PHEIC) demands its application particularly in desirable exit screening as it cannot locate syndromes that penetrated into the human body. Numerous alternatives are available that influence significantly to spread EVD in which the prominent ones are transmission interruption of epidemic control through disease monitoring measures, isolation emphasis and patients care, contacts monitoring and its tracing; improved familiarity and healthcare providers sensitizing in the European Union for Ebola, and encouraging them with resources that assist in locating and supervising chronic EVD patients; improving knowledge and communication to visitors leaving from EVD-affected economies.
Detailed description of the area researched
West Africa Ebola
World Health Organization (WHO) and the public bodies of Sierra, Liberia, and Guinea immediately required the monetary assistance amounting US$ 71,053,413 to execute the Ebola address plan and priority preparedness actions for six months duration (July to December 2014) in order to expedite the response in the vicinities. The basis of the financing plan was on the vision of strengthening pretentious economies and WHO to involve with every domestic and global stakeholders on the ground. The pandemic plan promised management between every player and the procurement of desirable assistance to the pretentious economies that are at danger. There is no permission to any organization to logically work and execute influence working on its own with an occurrence of this magnitude and nature. World Health Organization considers performing tasks fundamentally within a partnership structure. The following diagram helps reader to locate the influence of Ebola in West Africa:
World Health Organization (WHO) along with the support of pretentious economies after assessing the present condition of Ebola outbreak, attempted to initiate the Ebola Virus Disease Response Plan for July to December 2014. The assistance of donor allowed WHO to address to the requirements entrenched by economies in a meeting held in Ghana, and Accra, where, executives of Health and senior public officials along with the global community showed their presence in July 2014. Every player in Accra exposed their anticipations for World Health Organization to govern and organize the global address to the occurrence. The exploration of the outbreak reveals the forthcoming requirements of funds for addressing the Ebola syndrome.
Figure 1: Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak Response Plan in West Africa – A Call for Action
United States Ebola
Every United States acute healthcare facilities play a crucial role in examining, isolating, and assessing patients that have Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) and convey this information to healthcare authorities on an immediate basis. Acute healthcare facilities perform a single out of the three following tasks: Ebola evaluation institutes, Ebola treatment institutes, and frontline healthcare facilities. The officials of hospitals as part of their Ebola hospital preparedness efforts generate a domestic communication plan in order to confirm the dissemination of information in a desirable fashion in the cases when the expected Ebola patient demands for care in a facility, and an exterior communication plan to successfully coordinate with partners, media, and others. The development of harmonized, systemized strategy, national and local health executives, in association with hospital officials locate healthcare facilities transversely the national to assist in one of the three proposed roles. It is not the responsibility of every state to execute a three-tiered method, each of them promoted to locate Ebola evaluation hospitals that effectively supervise established situation of Ebola although expecting handover to an Ebola treatment center, ruling out of an EVD analysis, specifically in states where there is an absence of Ebola treatment center. The segregation of responsibilities to evaluation hospitals assists to confirm that people under investigation possess domestic approach to care though expecting possible handover to an Ebola treatment center. The scarcity of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the present circumstances does not allow Ebola treatment centers to determine the complete time period of patient’s care and provide in advance the provisions of PPE for the treatment of Ebola affected patients. Hence, the availability of enough Ebola PPE at hospitals for at least seven days for the treatment of patients is imperative so that hospitals may address Ebola affected patients in an intended manner. The following diagram shows the significance of varied institutes and their roles in effectively addressing the Ebola patients.
Figure 2: Interim Guidance for Hospital Preparedness for Management, Evaluation, and Testing of Patients with Probable Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)
Example companies involved
The US army found fifteen Reserve Units and National Guard from US to deploy in the early period of 2015 in order to diminish the influence of Ebola occurrence in West Africa. Barack Obama, President of the United States permitted spontaneous activities of reserve units for Operation United Assistance. Moreover, Chuck Hagel, the Defense Secretary, as well authorized deployment of twenty-one hundred Armed Individuals to Africa for replacing positioned groups. The deployment of Army National Guard units subsumed from Ohio (16th Contrive Taskforce Headquarters), Texas (272nd Contrive Company), Kansas (891st Contrive Division), California (223rd Military Intelligence Division), and Iowa (294th Zone Provision Medical Company). The deployment of US Army Reserve Units subsumed from Baltimore (313th Drive Control Division), Illinois (324th Expeditionary Signal Division), Miami (387th Medical Logistics Company), Miami (452nd Preventative Medicine Team), Ohio (B Co., 412th Civil Affairs Division), Denver and Salt Lake City (96th Sustainment Taskforce), Georgia (324th Fire Fighting Objectivity), Minnesota (329th Review and Design Team), Maryland (398th Battle Sustainment Provision Division), and Wisconsin (996th Horizontal Contrive Company) .
Global implications for the area
Ebola hysteria recently disseminated in majority of economies, where the fundamental spoken language is English, all due to the creation of hype by Media. The sick visitors that came from West Africa were in close monitoring, and real estate mogul Donald Trump required that US physicians that identified the disease do not have access into the US for handling. The experts in medical field clarified the limitation of epidemic in West Africa. The Ebola occurrence is quite little in the Western world. The set of contemporary health networks and the constrained communicability of the infection make it doubtful to expand in advanced economies. West Africa in contrast is profound in the domain of unfavorable medical crunch that eventually reveal political and social outcomes and the syndrome hit under situations that showed positivity. The advent of muddle and terror strained faith between West African public bodies and their citizens and severity experienced in the economic affairs of a country. The directions are available for each economy of the world to sustain peace and advancement in their respective region and it requires urgent initiatives to mend the economy that occurred due to the occurrence of the Ebola.
The highly significant impacts of the EVD appear forthcoming. The Minister of Finance of Liberia discouraged domestic expansionary projections and alarmed the critical outcomes in the country from the occurrence of Ebola and encouraged existing investors to strengthen their position and assist the economy to fight against this syndrome. Numerous educated youth and professionals flew and majority of airlines stopped their operations in the region. The reduced finance induction merged with a balanced deteriorating period to cross-border profession and nutrition markets hamper retrieval efforts in the forthcoming period. The existence of these significant implications raises complexities in international efforts and substantial amount spent to preserve peace in the region. The influence of civil war negatively impacted social and political scenarios within the region, although secondary influences of occurrence eventually dominate the disease itself. Ebola remains terrified for general public, however, this disease exposed life risk for a little number of individuals, and this penetrating situation is still under control but subject to a concerted effort.
World Health Organization (WHO) and influenced economies responded to EVA actively, and stimulated the players of government at the greatest political extent from each influenced and at-danger economies in the sub-region and beyond. WHO assisted the public bodies of West Africa to cover the occurrence; one fundamental action comprised of generating and enforcing a sub-regional Ebola Control Centre that behaves like a significant sub-regional operations management center. This strategy underpinned interaction within influenced economies and vital associates and enhanced desirable application of resources through every occurrence control movements in the economies. WHO and influenced economies as well intensified support to the West African zone and improved vigilance capacities of the economies and identified the instant danger exposed by the Ebola condition. The expedite address for EVD outbreak undertook by the public bodies of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea and enforced the application of their respective long-term plan. These economies promoted and enhanced every characteristic of the reply, subsuming information to public, case organization, direction, contact tracing, public deployment, infection stoppage, and control. World Health Organization while focusing on the instant demands associated to the Ebola occurrence utilized every chance to confirm that every financial induction into the response plan must result in underpinning nationwide capacities. The application of this plan with the span of time, Ebola occurrence contained, economies established potential nationwide capacities, needed for additional ultimate forthcoming public health emergencies.
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