The objective of this paper is to understand the process of gametogenesis and how diploid germ cells on the testes and ovaries become the haploid gametes. The paper is divided into three sections. The first section discusses the process of gametogenesis. The second section deliberates how diploid germ cells on the testes and ovaries become the haploid gametes. The third section concludes the paper.
Process of Gametogenesis
Gametogenesis is a biological process in which the formation of sex cells or gametes carried out in the gonads i.e. spermatogenesis (formation of sperms) in male’s testes and oogenesis (formation of ova) in female’s ovaries (Mondal, no date). Gametes are haploids cells which are called as ovum in females and spermatozoa in males. It contains half of the number of chromosomes; when fused with other gametes during fertilization produces zygote. Genetic information is transferred to the foetus through the fusion of ovum and spermatozoa. Formation of gametes is considered as the most important part of gametogenesis, which is done by a process called as meiosis in human beings.
How do the diploid germ cells on the testes and ovaries become the haploid gametes?
Germs cells are the cells that produce gametes. Diploid germ cells contain forty six chromosomes which are found in gonads. Gonads organs produce reproductive cells called as gametes. Female gametes are called as ovum and male gametes are called as sperm. Gametes which are haploid cells contain twenty three chromosomes in human beings. Diploid germ cells on the testes and ovaries become the haploid gametes through a sequence of cell divisions and creation of new cells which is called as germline (Swafford, no date). Mitosis and Meiosis are the two kinds of cell division and formation in germline. In Mitosis, every chromosome is copied exactly in the same number. Hence, it doubles the number of total chromosomes. Meiosis is again of two kinds i.e. Meiosis I and Meiosis II. In Meiosis I, segregates the chromosomes which results in two set of chromosomes i.e. 46 chromosomes. In Meiosis II, chromosomes again divided. Each gamete is now consists with 23 chromosomes. This was the process through which diploid germ cells become the haploid gametes.
Gametogenesis is a production of sex cells which is referred as gametes. Gametes are carried out in the gonad organs i.e. testes and ovaries. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis are process of production of sperm in men and ova in women respectively. Diploid germ cells become the haploid gametes through the cell division process called as Mitosis and Meiosis.
Mondal Puja (no date). Gametogenesis Process in Human: Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis. Retrieved from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/biology/gametogenesis-process-in-human-spermatogenesis-and-oogenesis/11843/
Swafford A S (no date). Germ Cells in Humans: Definition, Lesson & Quiz. Retrieved from http://study.com/academy/lesson/germ-cells-in-humans-definition-lesson-quiz.html