Human rights refer to the freedom and fundamental rights to which all individuals are at liberty. They comprise of political and civil rights. Examples of freedom and rights include freedom of expression, right to liberty and life, fairness before the bylaw; economic, social and cultural rights, as well as the right to take part in traditions, the right to work, the right to eat, and the right to get educated. Civil rights on the other hand ensure of individuals’ safety and physical integrity defense from prejudice on grounds such as mental or physical disability, race, gender, age, religion among others.
The history of human and civil rights covers hundreds of years and draws upon cultural, religious, legal and philosophical developments all through recorded history. A number of ancient later religions documents and beliefs include a diversity of theories that are well thought-out to be human rights (Roe 77).
In the 20th century, human and civil rights became a vital concern over the slavery issue. A number of reformers worked towards the elimination of slavery. This was accomplished by the Slave Trade Act in the British Empire and the Slavery elimination Act. Many northern states in the United States put an end to their institution of slavery by the mid 20th century, even though states in the southern region were still economically reliant on slave labor. Debates and Conflict over the growth of slavery to new regions culminated in the American Civil War and during the southern states’ secession. During the renovation period following the war, several adjustments to the Constitution of the United States were made. These included the 13th and 14th amendment assuring civil rights, full citizenship and banning slavery to all individuals born in the United States, and the 15th adjustment, assuring African Americans the freedom to vote (Korematzu 54- 99).
Many movements and groups have managed to attain profound social changes over the 20th century in the name of individual rights. In the North America and Western Europe, labor mergers created laws guaranteeing employees the right to forbid child labor establish minimum working surroundings and strike. The women’s rights movement thrived in gaining the right to vote (Orr 77). Nationalized liberation associations in many states thrived in driving out imposing powers. Associations by long-oppressed religious and racial minorities did well in many parts of the globe.
The founding of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the 1874 and the first of the Geneva conference in 1865 laid the basics of International civilized law, to be further amended following the World Wars.
The gross abuses of individual’s rights, the two World Wars, and huge losses of life that took place throughout were a driving force following the development of modern individual rights. In the 20th century, The League of Nations was established in at the discussions over the Versailles Treaty. Following the end of the First World War, the League’s goals comprised of disarmament, preventing war through communal security, settling disagreement between countries through diplomacy, negotiation, and civilizing global welfare. Enshrined in its contract was an authorization to endorse many of the rights that were later built-in in the general Declaration of individual Rights.
The Yalta Conference under the linked Powers decided to form a new body to displace the League’s role; The UN played a significant role in global civil rights law from the time when it was created. Until the 20th century, women in Western European nations lived under many of the same lawful disabilities as women in the United States. For instance, until 1934, married women in England did not have the right to own possessions and to enter into contracts on the same level with unmarried women. Only after the 20th century was legislation approved to offer working women with employment prospects and pay then equivalent to men.
Even though there were many battles left to fight after the 1950’s, the humanitarian rights were crucial in American history. All through the Progressive association, American found balance to the uncontrolled growth of commerce; lives of the underprivileged and disenfranchised were better confined.
At the end of the 20th century, personal freedom was hotly under debate. In 1790, during the French rebellion, a Declaration of Woman Rights to protest the revolutionists was published failure to mention women in their assertion of the Rights of individuals.
During the beginning of the 20th century the term new woman came into use in the popular press. More young women were schooling, working both in white- and blue collar jobs, and supporting themselves in the city apartments. Some communal opponents feared that feminism, which they understood to mean the end of the family and home, was victorious. In fact, the usual habits of American women were altering. Even though young individuals dated more than their parents did and used the coupé to get away from parental administration, most young women remained married and became the customary mothers and housewives.
Korematzu, R. S. Vietnamese Declaration of Independence; -Berkeley’s School of Information. 2008. Web. 2 Nov 1943.
Orr, J. E. Universal Declaration of Human. UC: change in human right New York: Cornell University Press, 1948. Print.
Roe ,W. Ten Years of Talking About Machines. Black Sheep Farm, USA. 1944. Web. 2 Nov 1973.
Brown vs. Board of Education, Change in human rights and civil rights over the course of the 20th century Berkeley’s School of Information. 1978. Web. 2 Nov 1954.