Cantu, R.c.. "Concussion in Professional Football: Morphology of Brain Injuries in the NFL Concussion." Yearbook of Sports Medicine 2010 (2010): 23-24. Print.
In this article the author starts by trying to bring into light what very few aspiring footballers want to hear. In this piece of writing the author categorically describe the concussions and all the other injuries that happen as harzardous. The reason of the author carried out this whole experiment is because he wanted to show the real impact of the concussion on the brain. The demonstration was conducted using a Winstar rat weighing three hundred grams and hit on the head with an impactor of fifty grams moving at a velocities of 7.4 to 11.2 m/s. In his findings, he found out that the impact resulted in 6% to 28% cases of meningeal hemorrhages. The whole study was conducted in order to addresses the Immunohistochemical responses of the brain.
In his work, the author conducted twenty seven test with the aforementioned procedure. An additional thirty one tests were also carried out with a heavier impactor. After the all the organisms were taken through this process, the diffuse axonal injury in distant regions of the brain was assessed. In his findings, the author found out that the heavier the impactor was the more severe the injuries were. He describes all the other parts that were affected as a result of the process. He showed the other effects the impact had on the blood vessels. In his conclusion, he stated that when the results of immunohistochemical are extrapolated to professional football players, there is little or no brain damage at all after the concussion. However, continuous impact with a material of heavier mass travelling at a higher velocity causes distant and extensive axonal injuries. He concluded that the diffuse axonal injury threshold is above even the most severe conditions for National Football League concussion.
Carroll, Linda, and David Rosner. The concussion crisis: anatomy of a silent epidemic. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2012. Print.
Going about the cautionary tales with an accessible and clear explanation that is common in the advanced science and medicine, this book truly stands shoulder and head high above the rest when it comes to exploring the invisible injury behind today’s alarming headlines. Her work has been recognized by people from all walks of life. Many like the Linda Carroll and David Rosner have expressed passion for this award winning book. They termed it as an eye opener. The author sounds an urgent wake-up call to every member of the community and mostly the families arguing that a change is needed to the macho culture that declines to treat head injuries (concussions) seriously. He advocates for serious rethink and the necessary measures to be taken by all the parties involved.
Culverhouse, Gay. Throwaway players: the concussion crisis : from pee wee football to the NFL. Lake Forest, Calif.: Behler Publications, 2012. Print.
In her work, the author a former Tampa Bay Buccaneers President Gay Culverhouse gives an insight to the dark side of the American football. The author says as much as football is fascinating it has chronic effects to the players. She also candidly shows how the National Football League (NFL) neglects the needs of their players after once they are out of the field. The book is based on the time that the author spent as president of the Buccaneers, medical research, and personal interview with former players. The objective for her work was to raise awareness among fans of what happens upon retirement. The author’s work aims at informing the coaches, potential players and parents of the potential harm.
Gilbert and L. Syd M. Johnson. "The Impact of American Tackle Football-Related Concussion in Youth Athletes." AJOB Neuroscience 2.4 (2011): 48-59. Print.
A postmortem research was carried out on the brains of American tackle football players has shown candidly the presence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE is defined as a form of encephalopathy that is a progressive degenerative disease, which can only be definitively diagnosed postmortem, in individuals with a history of multiple concussions and other forms of head injury. The study showed that continuous and repeated concussion is a risk for any football-related concussion. The study showed that of equal concern is that youth are at an increased risk for lasting neurocognitive as well as developmental deficits that can result in behavioral disturbances and diminished academic performance. The article clearly investigates on the factors that lead to concussion and how to deal with them. In this article, we consider evidence of the effects of concussion in youth athletes, and discuss ethical duties to youth athletes and how these duties might be satisfied, given the intrinsic risks of football. Finally, we evaluate potential strategies for reducing concussions in junior football, and recommend the optimal strategy for reducing brain injury to an acceptable level while still making available the benefits of football participation for youth athletes.
Gordon, Kevin E., Joseph M. Dooley, and Ellen P. Wood. "Descriptive Epidemiology of Concussion." Pediatric Neurology 34.5 (2006): 376-378. Print.
Guerriero, Mark R. Proctor, Rebekah Mannix, and William P. Meehan. "Epidemiology, trends, assessment and management of sport-related concussion in United States high schools." Current Opinion in Pediatrics 24.6 (2012): 696-701. Print
Sport-related concussion affects athletes at every level of participation. Both the short term and long-term effects of concussions that occur during childhood and adolescence are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to describe the current burden of disease, current practice patterns and current recommendations for the assessment and management of sport-related concussions sustained by United States high school athletes.
Millions of high school students participate in organized sports in the United States. Current estimates suggest that, across all sports, approximately 2.5 concussions occur for every 10 000 athletic exposures, in which an athletic exposure is defined as one athlete participating in one game or practice. At schools that employ at least one athletic trainer, most high school athletes who sustain sport-related concussions will be cared for by athletic trainers and primary care physicians. Approximately 40% will undergo computerized neurocognitive assessment.
The number of high school athletes being diagnosed with sport-related concussions is rising. American football has the highest number of concussions in high school with girls' soccer having the second highest total number. Fortunately, coaches are becoming increasingly aware of these injuries and return-to-play guidelines are being implemented.
Hyman, Mark, and Robert Cantu. Concussions and our kids america's leading expert on how to protect young athletes and keep sports safe. Unabridged. ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012. Print.
Robert Cantu the author of the book is co-director of Boston University’s Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy chief of neurosurgery and chairman of the department of surgery at Emerson Hospital, teams up with sports journalist Hyman to cover concussions in kids’ sports. In his work, the author categorically present some of the most sobering facts. He states that four million concussion cases are recognized by the medical fraternity in children every year. He further indicates that there is a great number of such cases occurring but without being reported. The author clearly defines what a concussion is, he also describes the symptoms and the therapy (Physical rest and cognitive), clarifies the dangers, and dispels myth.
Mueller, Frederick O., and Robert C. Cantu. Football fatalities and catastrophic injuries, 1931-2008. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 2011. Print.
According to the author, the need to make the game much safer was not debatable since the first collegiate game that was played on 6th November, 1869. The author puts it that it is in the interest of every involved party to reduce injuries. This need to reduce the injuries sustained during the game has played a major role in redefining the game in terms of safety. In the book the author shows how the rules have been changed to provide for better playing environment. This as well as the change in equipment has gone a long way to achieve the aim of the game. The book tries to look back at some of the injuries that have been recorded in the game’s history. The book critically analyzes important circumstances in football relating to fatalities and catastrophic injuries (equipment, rules, coaching, and medical care. In their work the authors gives an informative history of the major brain and spinal injuries as well as heart-related and heat stroke fatalities and how their detection and treatment has changed during the past 75 years. A chapter discusses the history of NOCSAE and its effect on helmet standards and a chapter by Herb Appenzeller discusses risk management in football programs.
Viano, David C., Anders Hamberger, Hayde Bolouri, and Annette. "Concussion In Professional Football." Neurosurgery 64.6 (2009): 1162-1173. Print.
It was found that there are more concussion cases recorded in colleges more than in high school. The actual figure of the concussions that were recorded in high school were 0.56 concussions per every 1000 athlete-exposure. In colleges the rate was marginally higher with the concussion being reported at 0.58 per every 1000 athlete-exposure. The average concussions recorded were 0.57 concussions per 1000 athlete-exposure. After the study the author realized that concussion is the second (high school) or third (college) most frequent injury. Additionally, the author also came into a conclusion that concussion is 9 to 10 times more likely to occur in games than while practicing. This said, it would be worth noting another conclusion that the author arrived at. He stated that half or fifty percent of all concussion cases are as a result of helmet to helmet contact. The risk of sustaining a concussion is six times greater for individuals with a history of concussion than for individuals with no history. Further commentary on these and other results is presented.
Zemper, Eric. "A Two-Year Prospective Study of Cerebral Concussion in American Football." Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal 11.3 (2003): 157-172. Print.
The main objective which made the author to undertake this study is in order to be in a position to prospectively measure the relative risk of cerebral concussion. This study was carried among people with a documented history of concussion with those that have no any kind of concussion history. The author utilized a population of football players from both college and high school. In order to successfully complete his study, the author came up with a design. It was such that a representative national sample of high school and college football players was keenly followed for two full seasons over a time of two years. The time covered was between the years 1997 to 1998 and was part of the national football injury surveillance project.
During this period, there were a total of 15,304 player-season and over 1 million athlete-exposures to the possibility of injury during both game time and practice. The author found out that a staggering 6.4% of the player-seasons had history of concussion in the previous five years. In his conclusion, the author indicated that this large prospective cohort study indicates the risk of sustaining a cerebral concussion is nearly six times greater for individuals with a history of previous concussion than for individuals with no such history.