Hospitals are homes to different patients who require different attention. This means that there must be people who are qualified for different roles in the medical field. In this connection, hospitals are not required as a block where all patients are handled in the same room. Instead, departments should be formed where each of them operates in support of the other to ensure patients are handled and treated accordingly. This has resulted to existence of various experts for specific duties in the hospital. Among the most common departments in hospitals are Dermatology, Oncology, Gastroenterology, Pulmonary, Cardiology, Endocrinology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Orthopedics, and Neurology. Each department deals with a given set of disease which are unique and there are unique procedures and laboratory tests that have been proven right for specific dpertments.
This is a medicine branch that deals with the skin and diseases related to the skin. As a major department in the hospital, dermatology deals with surgical and medical aspects of the skins as well as its infections. There is a wide range of skin related diseases but the most common ones that the department tries to deal with are diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, lupus, and a group immune-related skin disorders.
This department is divided into sub-departments with each of them playing unique role. These sub-departments include; cosmetic dermatology, dermatopathology, immunodermatology, mohs surgery, pediatric dermatology, as well as teledermatology (Steewat, 1997). Each of them has unique role that it plays in the treatment of skin related diseases.
Cosmetic dermatology is a treatment process where dermatologists carry out cosmetic procedures such as face lifts, and liposuction. This treatment is usually limited to minimal insidious procedures. Dermatopathology refers to a dermatologist or pathologist who chooses to specialize in skin pathology. Anyone wishing to become a dermatopathology has to be trained for the two occupations. Immunodermatology is mainly connected with the treatment of immune-related skin diseases that are very common in the hospital. They usually conduct their activities or tests in immunopathology labs. Mohs surgery being the other sub-department for dermatology deals with the excision of skin cancers following use of tissue-sparing technique that permits complete intra-operative assessment of the deep tumor and peripheral. Pediatric dermatology deals with complex diseases such as neonates and any hereditary skin disease. Teledermatology uses telecommunication technology in the exchange of medical information through all forms of media (Steewat, 1997). It mainly focuses on viewing the conditions of a skin to evaluate the possibility of chronic skin conditions. However, currently the most common concern in the hospital is the rising level of skin cancer. The hospital has been receiving skin cancer cases from time to time.
This department usually involves laboratory procedures and interventions in cases of skin related lesions with concrete involvement, polymyositis as well as connective tissues diseases. Also, there is need for continuous histopathological diagnosis to evaluate certain medical conditions (Steewat, 1997).
These procedures are conducted by a team of qualified dermatologists who are specialists in skin as well as venereal diseases. They must be individuals who fully understand procedures that should guide the department.
This is a medical department in the hospital that deals with cancers and tumors. The department conducts various roles on patients. The first role is diagnosis of any form of cancer in an individual. Diagnosis is carried out in various methods, which include; resection or biopsy, endoscopy, X-rays, CT scanning, MRI scanning, PET scan, scintigraphy, as well as blood tests. The second role is therapy where follow-up as well as palliative care is administered. This calls for immediate chemotherapy for patients and regular blood tests as well as blood tests. The third role is palliative care refers to remission with radical treatment which is usually carried out at home with nurses as well as doctors visiting patients at home (DeVita, 2005).
Cancer being a deadly disease in the modern world, the hospital has invested massively in research as well as development of the existing strategies to fight as well as cure the disease. Therefore, the hospital has come up with various sub-departments for oncology. The first one is medical oncology which mainly aims at treatment with drugs. The second one is interventional oncology, which focuses on minimally invasive image based on tumor therapies. The third one is gynecologic oncology, which lays its focus on cancers related to the female reproductive system. The fourth sub-department is pediatric oncology which deals with diagnosis and treatment of cancer among children. The fifth one is the anatomical pathology, which lays exclusive concern to diagnosis of all types of cancers, which can be treated by oncologists (DeVita, 2005).
In most cases, the oncology department works as a team in order to deal with problem at an extremely easy manner and avoid the massive deaths caused by cancer.
In the hospital, this medical branch deals with the digestive system as well as its disorders. As major system of the body of a human being, the digestive system is exposed to various ill conditions.
There are various diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract, which encompasses all organs from the mouth to anus. The organs along the alimentary canal are the main focus for this medical department. Physicians working in this department are known as gastroenterologists (Steewat, 1997).
Among the main ailments that gastroenterologists should be aware of and be ready to curb are peptic ulcer disease, colon polyps, gastric cancers, Barret’s esophagus, colon and bowel cancers, cholecystitis, biliary tract disease, hepatitis, gall bladder stones, and cancer, gastroesophageal reflux, colitis, nutritional problems as well as irritable bowel syndrome (Steewat, 1997).
However, the most common sign of a disorder in the digestive system is stomachache which may last for a long time. There are always cases of stomachaches reported in the hospital from time to time citing unhealthy digestive tract among the patients.
For proper diagnosis of these diseases, gastroenterologists are required to have excellent understanding of normal functioning as well as the diseases that are related to the stomach, esophagus, colon, small intestine, pancreas, gallbladder, liver, as well as rectum. Therefore, physicians must have proper understanding of the normal functioning or physiology of the organs that have been discussed above. Also, they have to understand the motility through the intestines as well as gastrointestinal tract for it to sustain healthy digestion, nutrients’ absorption, metabolic processes as well as removal of waste.
The most common tests that are carried out in this department are liver function tests, blood counts, kidney function tests, urine examination, amylase and serum lipase, as well as coagulation profile. Also, chest radiograph, abdomen ultrasound and computed tomography scan as well as MRI are conducted for diagnosis of various diseases (Tully, 2002).
These tests and procedures were mainly conducted by hepatobiliary specialists, and gastro-surgeons.
This is a medical department in the hospital that deals with the management or treatment of patients who suffer pulmonary diseases. This is an extremely critical department in the hospital. Among the main patients that the hospital deals with are patients with chest disorders such as kyphoscoliosis, intestinal lung infections, chronic lung diseases, acute conditions such as pneumonia, and pleural effusion. The patients suffering above heath conditions may be treated in the hospital or at home. The department has an emergency section where emergency cases such as pneumothorax, respiratory failure cardio-respiratory arrest, as well as foreign body ingestion are managed and later shifted to ICU after they stabilize. Also, rib fractures, lung contusions, and post traumatic hemothorax (Tully, 2002).
The department is driven by a set of procedures that are conducted by the specialists in the field. Among the most common procedures that are conducted in the field are intercostals tube insertions for pneumothorax, pleural fluid aspiration, bronchscopy, as well as biopsy being carried out routinely (Steewat, 1997).
For laboratory services in the department, major requirements include liver function test, blood counts, urine examination, kidney function, as well as coagulation profile. Other tests include; radiograph of the abdomen, chest, ultra sound of the chest, MRI diagnosis of various diseases, and the computed tomography scan. Also, airway management and pleural fluid examination are conducted (Steewat, 1997).
The above mentioned activities are usually carried out by highly qualified individuals as critical care specialists, pulmonologists as well as specialists in respiratory cases who play critical role in care and management of patients with respiratory diseases.
This is the other major medical department in the hospital. It is department that has played critical role in making our hospital a role model for most hospitals following the exclusive services that are offered in the department. It reflects the uniqueness of the hospital which is built upon the willingness of the physicians as well as experts in the medical department.
This department deals with various kinds of patients who have exclusive complications. It deals with patients with myocardial infarction, hypertension, heart block, hypertension, rheumatic heart disease, acute coronary syndrome, valvular diseases, pericardial diseases, as well as congenital heart diseases. These diseases are mainly connected to the heart hence the term cardiology. Following the increasing numbers of patients suffering from these diseases, the hospital has continuously invested in methods that would aid in the elimination of the disease. In the hospital, patients are handled in different ways. Patients are treated as inpatients, outpatients, or cardiac critical care individuals.
The specialists in the department undertake various procedures which include permanent and temporary pacemaker insertion, PTCA, CABG, and angiography which carried out routinely. These procedures are usually carried out with exclusive expertise and understanding of various medical elements (Tully, 2002).
For excellence laboratory services are offered under exclusive requirements for blood counts, kidney and liver function tests, coagulation profile as well as urine examination. For diagnosis, ECHO and ECG are conducted while chest x-ray, ETC and CT scan of the chest are carried out (Tully, 2002).
For proper treatment in the various specialists must work according to the duties defined for them. The most common specialists in the field are critical care specialist, interventional cardiologists, as well as cardiologists who should always be ready for patient management.
This is a branch of medicine that deals with the endocrine system, diseases related to the system, as well as certain secretions known as hormones. Being an extremely critical body system, the endocrine system has not been able to avoid adverse unhealthy issues. This means there are various ill health elements that are associated to the system. Diseases that result from disorders of the endocrine system are referred to as hormone imbalance, which are well known as endocrinosis. Other diseases include hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus as well as metabolic syndrome (Tully, 2002).
Endocrinology involves a set of diagnosis which are usually conducted through evaluation of a group of symptoms as well as variations and prolonged deficiency disorders management. Excellent diagnosis of the endocrine system is conducted through laboratory tests by specialists. One of the mostly used laboratory test is excitation test, which involves injection of an endocrine organ with a stimulating agent. The other test is diagnostic imaging, which is analysis for physical development of endocrine organs. In these tests proper understanding of biochemistry as well as clinical chemistry paves way for excellent outcome of the procedures used in carrying out the test (Tully, 2002).
In most cases, the tests are carried out endocrinologists who are internal medicine specialist and are also known as pediatrics. Also, pediatricians and gynecologists are involved in the tests process. However, different endocrinologists are supposed to undertake their tests based on the areas that they are specialists. For example, endocrinologists for reproductive organs deal with fertility and menstrual problems.
Obstetrics and Gynecology
These are medical departments that are also found in our organization. They are two surgical-medical specialties that deal with female reproduction during their pregnancy and non-pregnancy states, respectively. This is an extremely significant department in the hospital with exclusive support for patients who suffer or undergo various challenging during the process of giving birth. They are in charge of normal pregnancy status, hypertension that results from hypertension, placenta praevia, still birth, abruption, endometriosis, gynecological disorders such as ovarian cysts, infertility as well as uterine bleeding (Townsend, 1992).
As an extremely critical department in the hospital various activities take place in the department. This means that there are various processes in forms of test that take place in the department. Among the procedures that ought be followed in the department are hysterectomy, cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, as well as laparoscopic surgeries (Tully, 2002).
As an extremely crucial department in the hospital among the mainly critical test that carried out are liver function test, kidney function test, urine examination, and coagulation profile. These are test which are directly linked to tests for pregnancy among patients. In most cases, these tests are reliable by doctors in giving outstanding results on the pregnancy status of an individual with whom the department has been concerned of for a given period of time (Townsend, 1992).
However, for excellent outcomes, the process of testing for various elements in the patient is not conducted anyone. Instead, experts in various fields are required to carry out the tests. Among the most common specialists who are found in the department are obstetrician as well as gynecologists who specialize in their different fields in order to take care of this department (Townsend, 1992).
This is a section of surgery department that deals with musculoskeletal system. The specialists in the department use both their non-surgical and surgical means in the treatment of various complications that come along with the musculoskeletal system. Among the mainly treated health conditions are sports injuries, musculoskeletal trauma, degenerative diseases, congenital diseases, as well as inactions trauma (Townsend, 1992).
However, for qualification in treatment of various health conditions, certain procedures need be undertaken. These are the steps that prepare an individual as an expert for the field. In this case, the main procedures that are carried out are arthroplasty, shoulder and elbow surgery, hand surgery, foot and ankle surgery, pediatric orthopedics, musculoskeletal oncology, orthopedic trauma as well as surgical sports medicine (Rowland, 1984).
In most cases, for excellent procedure following in the treatment process one test is extremely common among patients. This test is known as radiography and is critical in the identification of eventual fractures of a bone (Tully, 2002).
Therefore, in the department qualifications are required among the individuals who would be entrusted the performance of various tests as well as actualization of the procedures named in the department. The most common professionals in the departments are osteopathic specialists as well as orthopedic physicians and surgeons. They are entrusted the role of ensuring that patients are safe during surgery and bones which may paralyze a patient are well treated to prevent them from external shock. These must be people who are trained in recognized medical training institutions which have concrete background for surgery (Rowland, 1984).
This is the other department in the hospital that has embarked on enhancement of health for students who suffer from diseases such as stroke, epilepsy, meningitis, traumatic brain injury, intracranial tumors, neurocysticercosis, spinal lesions, meningioma, multiple sclerosis, subdural hematoma, alzheimer’s disease, extradural hematoma, hemorrhage among many other health complications (Rowland, 1984).
Having seen the large number of diseases that the department tries to deal with there must be exclusive procedures that define the success of the treatment that is required. These procedures are extremely critical in determining the success that will be defined for individual who are seeking advancement in their health condition through this department. Therefore, the most common procedures for this disease are nerve conduction studies, electroencephalogram, nerve biopsies, transcranial Doppler studies, as visual and sensory evoked potentials. These procedures require exclusive concern when they are being conducted since any mistake that may occur during the process may be extremely expensive to the department as they may cause loss of lives (Rowland, 1984).
However, the department also supports laboratory services that have to be carried under exclusive concern. Some of the services that would be conducted in the lab are liver function tests, blood counts, kidney operation tests, urine examination, as well as coagulation profile. Also, CT and MRI of the brain and digital subtraction angiography would be conducted (Tully, 2002).
This department would be made successful by the availability of certain professions. Among the specialists are neurology specialists and interventional radiologists who work together in emergency care, inpatient management, as well as outpatient management.
Despite the hospital having different departments, their coordination has ensured success for the organization in handling patients. Departments have attracted professionalism, which guarantees excellent care for patients. Each department deals with different diseases, which have been covered through support of concrete medicinal procedures as well as tests. Different procedures and tests have proven that specialists for various diseases are fully qualified for the departments that they have been entrusted. With respect of different roles entrusted to them, different specialists have earned the hospital credit in proper care of patients regardless of their situation.
DeVita, V. T. (2005). Cancer, principles & practice of oncology (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Rowland, H. S.1984).Hospital management: a guide to departments. Rockville, Md.: Aspen Systems Corp..
Steewat, K. (1997). Application of the international classification of diseases to neurology ICD-NA. (2nd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization.
Townsend, J. (1992). Strengthening research in academic OB/GYN departments. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Tully, T. N. (2002). Orthopedics. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.