Psychology - Discussion Questions
- Why is it helpful for human service professionals to understand how a client views the world using one of the mentioned cognitive processes?
It is important for human services professionals to understand different ways of thinking in order for them to offer effective services that address the specific needs of different individuals. For instance, relativists view the world as lacking absolute truths or validities and that all values vary depending on perceptions and as such all values are applicable in limited contexts (Mérő & Mészáros, 1990). In other words, an understanding of how different people see the world increases cooperation with clients and increases the efficiency of the solutions the counselor or psychologist offers.
- A client enters your office and insists that his parents are evil because they are alcoholics. This is an example of dualistic thinking. What interventions might you use to help your client become a relativistic thinker to gain a better understanding of his parents?
The goal in this case is to re-orient the client towards multiple perspectives. The first intervention would be to get the client to fully express his dissatisfaction with the parents by listing all the good he genuinely sees in his parents as well as all the negatives. This way I’d gauge the extent of his conviction with his current views. I would then ask him to list the characters what he would like to see in his parents. This will open up the client to multiple perspectives about his parents and he will let go of his bi-positional stance. I would also recommend that he spends ample time with his parents especially when they are sober. In this regard, I would also ask the parents to actively participate in changing their son’s stand by for instance spending more time with their son and communicating often and effectively.
- List some cognitive problems that infants and toddlers might have during their early years. Explain why they have these problems.
Cognitive development covers five core areas. These are intelligence, information processing, memory, language development and reasoning (Zeanah, 2009). Cognitive problems that infants and toddlers have emanate from neural development challenges either through genetics or from an infant’s immediate environment. Specific cognitive problems include attention problems such as Attention Deficiency Disorder (ADD) memory loss and weak problem-solving abilities. Cognitive problems in children might result from premature births or neural diseases such as meningitis. Children can also develop these problems due to improper upbringing where the parent absents themselves from the child and hence the child basically has limited resources and facilities to learn from (Zeanah, 2009).
- Early childhood is a time of rapid cognitive development, including the development of language (e.g., sounds and words with some basic conceptual knowledge). What social problems might a child develop if he or she is behind his or her peers in learning language?
- If children do not develop a solid sense of self during middle childhood, what problems are they at risk for developing?
The children are at risk of losing their self esteem and self-worth. Preoccupation with their inability to develop a solid sense of self could usher in disorders such as Attention Deficiency Disorders (ADD). This could result in slowed learning and compound cognitive problems. They could also develop resentment to those in authority, and they might become rebels at home and at school as they seek to discover themselves. In pursuance of self-discovery they might fall prey to bad company and involve themselves in drug use.
- During adolescence, socializing with peers helps teens develop cognitive independence from parents. Why is this separation necessary?
All adolescents go through almost similar challenges. The separation is necessary because it helps adolescents learn from each other. When adolescents are together they share the common problems and challenges they go through. This way they acquire cognitive independence away from their parents.
- Why is it important to attend trainings in topics such as HIPAA, confidentiality, cultural diversity, universal health procedures, and counseling theories?
It is important to attend trainings in the given topics because they basically prepare one to handle challenges in the dynamic human services industry. Scanlon (2011) asserts that training in professional topics enhance one’s professionalism and increase his/her effectiveness in service delivery. Knowledge about HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) for instance makes learners conversant with the health insurance system and the standards required of professionals in the health industry. Conversance with cultural diversity psychologically prepares one to handle challenges of serving in multicultural societies.
- Summarize your research in state/federal requirements for certification/licensure for your field. Create a timeline that you can follow to meet these requirements.
- What problems might psychologists encounter when trying to fulfill training requirements? How might these be solved?
Psychologists might encounter problems in ensuring that they are getting supervision and guidance from psychologists who are legally and professionally licensed. This problem can be solved by the training institutions ensuring that they actively match students with professional psychologists. There could also be a problem with inadequacy or inefficiency of learning resources and facilities. This problem can be solved by the training institutions ensuring that they invest in up to date technology as well as streamline enrolment of students to match the available resources.
- Based on what you’ve learned in the course so far, what do you think a “balanced approach” to reading means? What is included in a comprehensive literacy experience? How is it so much more than just learning to sound out words and spell?
A balanced approach to learning simply means equitable exposure of students to theoretical as well as practical situations. It is prudent that students are exposed to the real situations they shall encounter after leaving school. This gives them confidence and hones their professionalism thereby increasing their effectiveness in service delivery. I highly appreciate the internships incorporated as part of clinical psychology learning process and I think they epitomize what a “balanced approach” to learning really means.
The key components of a comprehensive literacy experience include interactive practical sessions between learners and their facilitators as well as independent sessions between students and real clients. This helps the students the freedom to exercise the theoretical knowledge they have gathered over years of learning. Comprehensive literacy experience is much more than just leaning to sound out words and spell because it emphasizes on the application of gathered theoretical knowledge to solve real human challenges. The students cultured in the latter situation are able to adapt to varying situations. This is because through prior practical sessions, they were able to develop several perspectives to solving unique challenges. In a system where learners are exposed to lesser practical situations say short internships they simply learn to sound and spell. Effective learning is embedded on quality rather than quantity.
"Nebraska Psychologist License, Certification - Psychologist Licensure in NE." All Psychology Careers | the Psychology Career and Education Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.
Mérő, L., & Mészáros, V. (1990). Ways of thinking: The limits of rational thought and artificial intelligence. Singapore.
Scanlon, L. (2011). "Becoming" a professional: An interdisciplinary analysis of professional learning. Dordrecht [etc.: Springer.
Zeanah, C. H. (2009). Handbook of infant mental health. New York: Guilford Press.