The need to have to have an international body that addresses the issues of nations, led to the formation of international bodies like the United Nations and the World Trade Organization (Chasek et al., 2012). However, the formation of these bodies would not have been successful without the engagement of multilateral negotiations. The term multilateral negotiations, refers to any dialogue that is conducted simultaneously by many nations, usually under the auspices of an organization. It is through multilateral negotiations that has facilitated the establishment of international bodies whose main objectives are to address issues affecting member states. However, effective negotiations cannot proceed without the goodwill of countries that wish to form an alliance. Multilateral negotiations require the support and commitments from all the interested partners so that they achieve their goals (Chasek et al., 2012).
This paper will discuss the relevance of participation, coalitions, agenda development and role differentiation in multilateral negotiations. Each of these elements plays a vital role in the negation process among countries. The paper will discuss their importance and how they contribute in multilateral negotiations.
The contributions made by countries in international negotiations play an integral role in the formation of international bodies. Participation can be in the form of attending forums, conferences, conventions or summits organized which are organized by groups of countries. Studies have shown that, the participation of members in a convention or an assembly helps in the generation of ideas (Lewicki et al., 2006). The involvement of members in the generation of ideas affecting the organization helps in easy formulation of plans to address the issues. Participation has helped poor nations present their issues in developed countries who deliberate on the appropriate measures to adopt to help the poor countries. . For instance, the participation of developing countries in World Trade Organization summits has helped them present their issues to the organization. This has helped them obtain loans and grants which have helped in initiating projects that alleviate the economic situation of their countries. Besides that, the interaction of participating nations in the meetings has helped many countries identify business ventures for purposes of investments ( Lewicki et al., 2006).
The coalition is another important element in multilateral negotiations. A coalition is when members of a group or countries agree to pursue a common goal. The need to form a coalition arises from common problems that may be affecting them. Coalitions allow countries to have more influence in international negotiations than they could have done as individual participants. A coalition represents the most effective tool to reduce the complex nature of multilateral negotiations to a manageable level. Without coalitions it is practically impossible to make meaningful bargains in the multilateral negotiations. Moreover, Coalitions help boost trade among nations. They help nations help each other in terms of the exchange of resources. For instance, through coalitions developing countries have been able to benefit from material and labour capital from developing countries. Moreover, developing nations have benefited from increased market for their produced goods and services. Besides that, coalitions promote international unity and help curb criminal activities like terrorism.
During the multilateral negotiations, countries create a framework of how they are going to implement the development programs. This framework is called development agenda. It acts like a blueprint which guides the associated countries in the implementation of their strategies. Through multilateral negotiations, nations are able to formulate programs that help them economically. The development agendas provide an elaborate plan of how the projects will obtain funds to run the program. However, the mode of contribution of funds or where the projects will be implemented depends on the agreements of the member nations. Quite often , the developed nations are the ones who contribute the largest shares while most of the development projects are based in poor countries. An example of a development agenda is the millennium development goals created by the United Nations in 2000 (Haerens, 2010). The goals aim at improving the social welfare of people and empower nations economically. The MDGs intends to achieve the goals by initiating programs that will empower people economically and socially. Therefore, agenda development is an important element of the international negotiations because they contribute to the prosperity of nations.
Role differentiation refers to the process of assigning duties to specific groups or parties . This allows members of a group to focus on a particular field in which they are best suited. Through role differentiation, countries are able to concentrate on particular sectors of their economies. The fragmentation of the production process helps nations produce output in the most efficient and convenient way . Besides that, role differentiation leads to improved quality of goods and services produced by countries (Haerens, 2010). Role differentiation has contributed to the development of global industrial transformation where production activities shift from developed nations to the developing countries. Moreover, role differentiation helps in efficient time management in the production of goods by a nation (Martínez, 2009).
In conclusion, multilateral negotiation is an important concern for the growth and development of a country. Nations should embrace these negotiations because they lead to global peace and international trade.
Chasek, P. S., & Wagner, L. M. (2012). The roads from Rio: Lessons learned from twenty years of multilateral environmental negotiations. New York: RFF Press.
Haerens, M. (2010). The World Trade Organization. Detroit: Greenhaven Press/Gale, Cengage Learning.
Lewicki, R. J., Saunders, D. M., Barry, B., & Lewicki, R. J. (2006). Negotiation. Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Martínez, P. J. (2009). Knowledge generation and protection: Intellectual property, innovation and economic development. New York: Springer.