Data mining can aid companies get the information about the employees in a firm. The information extracted from the employees and kept in the government’s database can help determine the criminals in case an insider crime is detected in the firm. Data mining helps in getting criminals but can sometimes infringe people’s privacy. It can combine information from many sources to create a detailed profile about each individual of interest. In order to establish an effective and enduring brand identity there must be a better understanding between identity and image. Once the identity has been known, it is easier to speak the right message. (Perry, 2002)
Benefits of DNA Databases.
i. They aid in identifying criminals. This is because the major crimes that occur usually involve people who must have committed the crimes elsewhere. With DNA banking it will be easy to identify such suspects.
ii. DNA databases can help to avoid incarceration of innocent individuals. The DNA databases help in determining who the real criminals are.
iii. They help in financial savings as DNA samples do not need to be taken every time a suspect is arrested. The banks will give all the required information especially when some one is not being arrested for the first time.
Problems posed by DNA database
i. Civil liberties and personal privacy is infringed. This is because a person’s genetic information can be easily extracted from the DNA databases.
ii. There is a significant ethical and social issues arising due to the fact that the DNA samples are retained by the investigating authorities.
iii. There is a likely hood of misconception of the actual criminal and thereby leading to incarceration of an innocent person especially if someone had a similar DNA with that of a suspect.
iv. There can be chances of the database being compromised which can eventually lead to a misjudgment of suspects. (Watson, 2003)
National DNA database
The National DNA database should be all inclusive and include all those in a country whether convicted of crimes or not.
Inclusions in a DNA database
A National DNA database should not be limited to convicted felons only but should extend and include those who have been arrested on suspicion of having committed a crime. This will help in freeing the innocent and incarcerate the criminals.
How CODIS work
Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) uses two indexes. The indexes are:
a) Forensic index – Has DNA profiles which are obtained from the scene a crime is committed.
b) Convicted offender index – Which has DNA profiles of the convicted individual.
CODIS use computer software to automatically search across these indexes for a potential match. When a match is made between the indexes, it is easy to determine who a criminal is and free an innocent suspect who might have been held for a particular crime (Bowen & Schneider, 2007)
Design of CODIS
The design of CODIS is very simple. It has three levels arranged in a hierarchy. (Schneider, 2007)The levels contain the two indexes and they include:
Information Maintained in CODIS
CODIS only contain the DNA profile and there is no any personal information that is maintained in the CODIS.(Perry, 2002)
The information in the CODIS can only be handled by the criminal investigations agencies.
How CODIS work
CODIS employ the use of two indexes. The first index has DNA of an arrestee while the other has the DNA taken at the scene of crime. Searches are then performed so as to get a match between a sample of biologic evidence and the profile of the arrestee. When a match is found, usually called a hit then the identity of a suspect can be easily revealed. A computer software is used to perform this operation of matching. (http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/html/codis.htm)
DNA databases have helped many countries trace criminals and at the same time free the innocent people incarcerated of crimes. Some of the high profile cases where DNA technology has been used include: the tragic disappearance of Madeleine McCann, Lindbergh kidnapping, the Kennedy investigation, Ted Bundy and when Paul Revere used dentures to identify a slain soldier in 1775. (Owen, 2009)
Bowen & Schneider (2007). NIJ Journal No.28 October 2007
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Owen D. (2009) Hidden Evidence: 50 True Crimes and How Forensic Science Helped Solve
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Perry A. (2002) Before the Brand: Creating the Unique DNA of an enduring Brand Identity.
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Watson, J.D. (2003) DNA: The Secret of Life. Arrow Books Limited: New York City, USA