1. Define organizational control and describe the four steps of the control process.
Organizational control is the process by which managers regulate and monitor the efficiency of an organization, and its member performance striving to achieve goals. Managers develop strategies organizations can implement in order to resources more effectively to increase the value for customers. Step one is to establish standards of performance, targets and goals. Step two is to measure the actual performance. Step three relates to how managers can compare performance and standards of performance. Step four relates to how managers can initiate change if standards are not being met (Essentials of Contemporary Management, 2013).
2. Describe the primary output controls available to managers, including their advantages and disadvantages as means of coordinating and motivating employees.
There are three primary output controls managers have control over. These include financial measures and performance, organizational goals and operating budgets. Financial measures and performance pertains to profit margins, liquidity ratios and activity ratios. Organizational goals pertain to how managers set performance standards. Operating budgets pertain to developing an output control system in order to regulate how managers and workers reach their goals. An operational budget is basically a blueprint which shows how managers will use organizational goals to achieve efficiency. Allocation of funds is linked to operating budgets (Essentials of Contemporary Management, 2013).
3. Describe the three mechanisms of behavioral control. What are some advantages and disadvantages of each?
Direct supervision, management by objectives and bureaucratic control are all mechanisms of behavioural control. Direct supervision is the most immediate form of behavioural control. It is direct supervision by managers who monitor their subordinates. This allows managers to become personally involved. However, there are issues involved with direct supervision such as it being costly. Management by objectives is a good way to set standards, evaluate and achieve goals. However, management by objectives poses some risk because all managers and subordinates must agree evaluations are fair and accurate. Bureaucratic control is a comprehensive system of rules which shapes and regulates behaviour. Problems with bureaucratic control include how people may stop thinking on their toes for themselves if all employees are following the same rules routinely all of the time (Essentials of Contemporary Management, 2013).
4. What is organizational culture and clan control? What is (are) the difference(s) between adaptive cultures and inert cultures?
Organizational culture regulates and governs employee attitudes and behaviour while clan control is the control exerted on individuals and groups in an organization by shared values and behaviour standards. Adaptive cultures refer to the organizations which have strong and cohesive organizations, while inert culture refers to those who lead to stagnation and failure over time (Essentials of Contemporary Management, 2013).
5. What is the relationship between organizational control and change? Describe the four steps n the organizational change process. What is the difference between top-down and bottom-up change in an organization?
Organizational control and change must be balanced. First, managers must assess the need for change, decide on the change which needs to be made, implement the change, and finally managers must evaluate the implemented change (Essentials of Contemporary Management, 2013).
Jones, G., & George, J. (2013). Essentials of Contemporary Management, 5th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.