INVESTIGATING & CRITIQUING THE ROLE OF VISUAL MODALITIES IN MEANING MAKING IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM
Critical Articles’ Appraisal of the Described Visual Learning/Teaching Medium (Digital Stories) or Strategy
PRACTICAL FACTORS IN THE USAGE OF VIDEO IN THE CLASSROOM IN LANGUAGE TEACHING
Christine Canning Wilson
Vol. 6. No. 11. 2000.
Video is best defined as the selective and sequential use of pictograms in an audio visual format. Considerable confidence has been placed in the valuation of audio visual assistance for enhancing foreign language learning, despite the minimal amount of empirical data on audio visual material in learning foreign languages. However, given the time devoted to utilizing video in the study of a foreign or second language in a classroom setting, we must explain how there has been a substantial improvement in language learning procedures over the years. The present research reveals the numerous limitations in such learning, as determined by the learning outcomes (Sun & Nippold, 2012).
First, several studies have used visual aids and not actual video tutorials of the foreign languages being studied. Second, several language studies that have used videos have applied defined methods of teaching rather that random methods within foreign language studies. This research article by (Sun & Nippold, 2012) demonstrates that studies that are applicable to varied groups and languages can potentially yield a variation of outcomes, when compared to the traditional approach of language teaching. To determine variations in student response towards teaching methods, the researcher must ask whether similar research findings were obtained in studies of other languages. The article additionally shows the limitations of video studies and the long-term impact of utilizing videos within the classroom.
The argument discouraging video instruction reminds us that there is scant empirical evidence verifying that it aids in comprehension. For instance, how long after exposure can the impacts of video language instruction be measured, what is the extent of the exposure to the videos, and what significant variations in language learning occur? This is in addition to queries by teachers’ concerning the significance of visual aided teaching and the impacts on student comprehension. This is where we presented with the varied manifestations of videos and the impact of prolonged exposure to video teaching materials. Quantitative measures on the practical factors of learning a foreign language can address these queries. This evidence would justify resource allocation such as televisions, pictogram charts and video tapes in the classroom setting.
Over the decades, some of these queries have been addressed in a limited context. For instance, the suggestion was made by (Sun, 2010) that students are unlikely to listen in certain classroom settings. In which case, the use of video and sound would provide consistency in the how the story is perceived, the sense of difficulty, and ease in understanding of the pictograms presented. This article makes note of the scenes and utterances that are supported by actions and body language. Pictogram presentations that were less lively and involved sketches that were relatively long, were labelled as being more difficult to understand. Such observations illustrate the critical need for visual cues, as they either facilitate or hinder perception.
Literature presented by (Sun, 2010) makes note of the point of interest in a classroom setting as being strictly restricted to sound. Preceding experiments have shown less success in sustaining any form of interest and listening concentration. This article also includes the use of visual support in the form of descriptive illustrations. Visual-based teaching, such as with students learning French, has led to significantly increased comprehension. The outcome of this research provides an indication of how extensive listening facilitates contextual richness, such as when it is provided by video education instructors.
The article by (Sylvester & Greenidge, 2009) also suggest that students enjoy learning languages using videos; one outcome was realizing learners’ preferences for action- or entertainment-based films in comparison to language-based films or documentaries (Sylvester & Greenidge, 2009). The approach stated that even when such films seemingly hold students’ interest, it can be inferred that students’ comprehension of the video can be attributed to visual rather than auditory cues.
Therefore, the hypothesis proposed an increased meaning comprehension with the advancement of visual audio teaching and the increased impacts of language comprehension and retention. Even the form of teaching using video seemingly holds the students’ interest. These findings can likely be attributed to videos providing contextual support or assistance to learners through visualizations, which are illustrating meanings. Individuals process information using varied approaches and with strategies that are applied differently by learners. Evidence confirms that the benefits attributed to a single faction of learners can actually be a potential hindrance for the performance of a more varied faction of learners. Therefore in the presentation of matters of value concerning videos as tools, we are presented with the question of how the use of videos can be made fully applicable in a teaching context. We are left with the suggestion that in a second language setting, teaching methods have no empirical basis for promoting the application of visual aids.
OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN NARRATIVE IN DIGITAL REPRESENTATION
Vol. 155. No. 4. 2013.
This article by (Cheryl, 2013 ) includes four digital inquiries presented in a narrative format, based on the reflections of teachers, students, and school administrators concerning their experiences in four different art-based transformation initiatives in four classroom contexts. This research was fuelled by the need for a practical examination of the intersection between narrative inquiry and digital stories. The decision was made by the author to experiment with digital storytelling as a form of storytelling, using parallel stories and story constellations in their respective forms. The approach seemingly fit from the outset, as the narrative inquiry unveiled human experiences (Taki & Fardafshari, 2012). The digital storytelling form is attained by using digital media presentations, originating from visual imagery projected onto a screen. The term storytelling was only later attached to the technology. Digital stories are normally two to ten minute presentations of multimedia content and include varied forms with multiple objectives. The format can be fictional, narrative, documentary, or a simplified abstract conceptualization with contributions from portfolios or personal connection narratives. From a historical perspective, digital stories did not take on a research methodology, such as narrative inquiry. Even as narratives with personal connections, their varied uses were apparent at an institutional level. It is also based on (potentially) fitting within narrative inquiry, where digital stories were centred on personal experiences and cycled through several developmental stages. This approach includes works on story drafting, reflective story cycle discussions, and feedback. Prior to revising the default script according to the article, the storyboard was fully developed and included images that were coordinated with selections of the narrative. This culminated into a finished media product, all while adhering to the main principles of digital storytelling: the general purpose of the story, the point of view of the narrator, dramatic questioning, content selection, voice clarity, narrative pacing, meaningful soundtrack use, image quality, detailed story economy, and finally impressive grammar and language use. Furthermore, we are presented with the preparation of digital stories and how digital media is utilized in a lesser capacity as compared to the story itself (Tekinarslan, 2008). In employing the provisional definition of digital narrative-based inquiry, we were introduced to a representational format that features experience narratives that are told and re-told as well as storied and re-storied using the narrative inquiry method of research.
The outcome of these rigorous investigations of digital narrations captures and then communicates about the nature of these experiences; they are experienced within individuals’ contextual understanding on a personal level. Such digital narratives account for the basis of the relationship between researchers and participants, which is of great importance. This interaction is fuelled by the personal or social perceptions that are featured in common visual narratives. For instance, the author portrays a similar use of the narrative inquiry method of research while relying on interactive live video that uniquely formulates digital narrative inquires. The resulting variation can be compared to other forms, such a Bach’s scholarship, whichrequires coherence in still life photography.
Such visual research methods, based on ethnographies, likewise utilize photography, mapping, and computer generated graphics in a representative form. Visual ethnography is normally not confined to human interactions over a specified time or the involvement of the researcher in understanding the relationship. Instead, it is revealed in the interactions of students with teachers in the classroom environment.
UTILIZING DIGITAL STORYTELLING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE ENHANCEMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE NARRATIVE WRITING AND CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS
International Research Journal
Eman Mohammed and Sabry Abdel
Vol 5. No. 1 2014.
The authosr (Eman & Abdel, 2014) bring to our attention the concerns of foreign language teaching in the classroom and the shift from being centred on the teacher to being centred on the student. This occurs in combination with a shift in language instruction: instructors are using varied tools that equip leaners with knowledge and skill sets that are intended to make them increasingly autonomous and independent in their learning. Current advancements in information and communication technology mean that learners have varied resources, such as computers and internet-based resources, to assist them in independently taking charge of their learning. Therefore, several social networking services encompass the realm of digital storytelling using normal applications of technology; this technology is transformational, for it provides opportunities for learning.
Writing requires processing thought and cognitive procedures. It is considered a highly complicated skill that, when applied, undergoes several levels, such as prewriting, editing, and the final finished stage. This is an individual procedure that calls for strategies of approaching the topic of study. It permits an individual to competently express themselves in another language. This activity is complex and requires a specified measure of linguistic knowledge, writing conventions, vocabulary, and grammar. This procedure is highly influenced by genre constraints, where students can benefit from learning activities with this being continued procedures of thought, organizing and re-organizing.
Narrative writing serves the purpose of providing information, such as by event reporting or storytelling. In this form of communication, two skills are required: selecting the details of the story and event placement, also known as sequential appropriation. The narrative is a text relayed in a timely order. It applies narrative creation, entertainment, and emotionally impacts the audience (Tendero, 2006). Other social aims of narrative writing include informing, persuading, or socializing. As such, the author presents the core structural aspects of narrative writing as orientation, complication, and resolution. This requires a teaching approach to narrative writing that enhances free behaviour among students: there is no pressure or fear of correction. To improve students’ writing and critical thinking skills, one approach is to formulate writing assignments that require students to shift between observation, inference, facts, and assumptions.
This can be achieved by integrating technology into learning or teaching procedures alongside the use of digital storytelling. Students using this form of learning will not remain passive. Rather, they will be equipped with the capability to make critical decisions as they write and ask questions. It will enable them to become better thinkers and writers. In combination with technological communication, expansion, and globalization, when exploring diverse modes of meaning, we are presented with a shift in experiencing traditional perceptions of literacy (Teo, 2006).Presently, students are faced with encounters and interactions of new digital literacy, including wikis, weblogs, and digital stories. This necessitates an effort to blend technology and education so as to generate interest, attention, and motivation for current digital generations of students.
The integration of age-old storytelling traditions with current technology results in these resources compelling and motivating students to read more. This technique is known as digital storytelling and is a positive approach to engaging with students in an innovative and traditional storytelling way. It is also an emergent approach for shaping a narrative and facilitates efforts to capture lesson sessions in the classroom. It additionally allows teachers to reflect on and revise their practices. This amounts to the development of conscious teaching, as it entails varied definitions of digital storytelling that entirely revolve around a selected theme and typically comprise a specific point of view.
According to the article, teachers first tend to play videos before explaining them for a few minutes. Then, there are varied storytelling applications that include telling tales that are personal, recounting historical events, or presenting information or instructions on a specific topic. Over the years, digital storytelling has become a substantial resource for teaching and learning that engages teachers and students alike. It presents a combination of functionality in visualization and verbalization that is crucial for understanding language and thought. The procedures for formulating digital storytelling require students to apply productive skills, such as writing and giving speeches. This is common practice for integrating narrative teaching approaches with digital content. The approach also includes imagery, sound, and video to capture the imagination of students and teachers.
Digital storytelling fosters the notion of ownership in learners and provides them with a deep understanding of the text, while also facilitating extended retention of the text. This can be used to improve learners’ writing skills while also allowing for a constructive experience of the story’s content. It facilitates collaborative activities, promotes in-class discussion, motivates learners towards critical thinking and fosters the perception of complicated ideas (Tsouet al., 2006). According to (Eman & Abdel, 2014), digital storytelling is a promising application in the foreign language learning context: it improves the traditional approach to storytelling, elementary word processing, and incorporates multimedia. The outcomes include an increased measure of analytical engagement and the use of critical video teaching techniques. In foreign language learning, this approach has resulted in increased learning engagement and improvements in writing, speaking, and listening comprehension skills.
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