A manager is usually an individual regarded as one who takes control of the management processes in an organization or a firm. In most circumstances, he is the supreme planner, organizer, a decision maker and a supervisor who monitors various humanitarian activities, information and finance resources of the organization (Mohammadi, 2007). According to Budding & Groot, a manager is one who is well acquainted with leadership skills and holds an administrative position of an organization and ensures the main objectives are realized in confined conditions despite all the risks encountered (Budding & Groot, 2008).
G. Baillod however, holds a different opinion and states that not all managers are supervisors in an organization as they have no impact on the realization of an organization’s goals and achievements impact. They, however, still remain superior to the organization’s employees (Baillod, 2009).The realization of optimal organizational efficiency and effectiveness, therefore, does not solely rely on the managers. Efficiency in an organization refers to the procedural manner of handling issues that would finally result to optimum system output. Effectiveness is the timely actualization of the procedural methods and proper utilization of the available resources (Mohammadi, 2007).
In an organization, the most critical aspect towards realization of efficiency and effectiveness is the managerial skills and leadership styles. According to Nathan G, the performance of an organization is directly proportional to the management structure and inversely proportional to the mechanical structure (Nathan, 2009). When management system works conjointly with the organizational decentralization, it may lead to a rise in efficiency and effectiveness. This is considered as the sole responsibility of the manager to ensure there is decentralization within the organization without which the level of efficiency and effectiveness realized would be dismal (Budding & Groot, 2008). Nathan G in his study further stated that it is the technical advances and management styles executed by the manager that exerts pressure on the choice of either decentralization or centralization in an organization (Nathan, 2009).
Managers who incorporate relationship oriented technique in their leadership styles and management have contributed positively towards maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of their organization (Mohammadi, 2007). Organization structure that is a task oriented and employs dictatorship style is less competitive, inefficient and ineffective as compared to one which is relationship oriented and collaborative in dealing with issues pertaining to the management of the organization (Budding & Groot, 2008). When there is a mutual and sincere relationship between the manager and the employees within an organization, many positive results are realized on both the organizational setup and financial performance.
It is the responsibility of a manager in an organization to ensure there is equal and proportional delegation of duties and responsibilities within the various sections and subsections. Proper authority distribution has indicated rise in effectiveness, efficiency and security as found out by Zahib S. in his study (Zabihi, 2007). If the management fails in assigning of the various roles to their respective departments and sub departments, supervision of work would be ambiguous creating a backlog which finally results in slow down of the entire production process rendering the organization inefficient and ineffective (Ortega, Zaragoza & Claver, 2010).
Self-discipline practiced by the managers when handling the employee’s incentives boosts their morale as the feel motivated. He ensures payments of incentives are done in an honest and ethical manner with utmost accountability within all the departments. As a result, there would be a shoot in output and performance (Ortega, Zaragoza & Claver, 2010). In this order, the organization maximizes its efficiency and effectiveness due to the ethical character showed manager. Without the discipline the moral of employees diminish resulting to underperformance and insecurity within the organization that when not taken into consideration may result into the collapse of the firm (Mousa, Hagh & Hashan 2009).
Proper decision making and continuous organization evaluation with the aim of determining the modest operational structure and its applicability is a mandatory aspect in ensuring an organization efficiency and effectiveness (Abbasi, 2005). The operational structure here in includes employees’ welfare, mode of disciplinary action to apply and work distribution. This is sole responsibility of the manager of an organization as predefined.
According to Mohammadi Z. however, managers may not contribute towards the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization since they ideologically depend upon departmental heads for moderation of factors that would reduce the identified tasks (Mohammadi, 2007). The governing board ensures that most appropriate control measures are in place and are executed in the best manner so as to realize maximum efficiency and effectiveness in an organization (Budding & Groot, 2008).Policies are forwarded to them for endorsement and each member of the board has a role in ensuring he/she understand these policies and make a detailed review on the mode of implementation and draw possible challenges and risks and how they can be managed (Nathan, 2009)
The board of governors in an organization is mandated with the role of structuring the organization in a manner that upholds honesty, integrity and moral behaviors. This applies when it comes to sensitive issues and decision making within an organization and it is not only the chief executive officer who is always the manager (Nathan, 2009).The effectiveness and efficiency of an organization do not solely rely upon the manager. An integral framework which incorporates operational managers and finance officers to ensure risks within an organization is lowered, and the objectives of the organization are realized (Ortega, Zaragoza & Claver, 2010).
Another essential tool that contributes towards the success and efficiency of an organization is the aspect of information and communication within the organizational setup. This ensures there is proper and reliable way of communicating management policies, commitments and departmental risks encountered to the employees (Mousa, Hagh & Hashan, 2009). This ensures a positive control environment is established within the organization that connects all the aspects of the institutional framework together. This is made possible by the board of governors through endorsement of a proper information dissemination strategy. This would in turn maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization (Ortega, Zaragoza & Claver, 2010).
Consistent supervision and evaluation by the board of governors, on whether ratified policies and procedures as established by the management are inculcated in the day to day operation of the organization by the employees also plays a key role in maximizing efficiency and effectiveness of the organization (Nathan, 2009). This ensures timely identification of risks calling for immediate rectification without which this can be detrimental to the organization if at all the duty is left only to be executed by the manager. When the designed procedures and policies postulated by the board of governors are fully implemented and followed up to the later, the organization would enjoy a booming output hence considered efficient in its operation (Mousa, Hagh & Hashan, 2009)
For an organization with a well-designed strategic plan drawn by its board, which can be translated into a binding work plan with well-defined responsibilities within a reasonably set timeline and competent staff enjoys a smooth and well-coordinated managerial operations (Baillod, 2008).This optimizes the efficiency and effectiveness within the organization that would otherwise not be solely achievable by the manager whom only practices the ethical aspects in the daily operations of the organization. The board plays the ultimate role in defining maximization of efficiency and effectiveness in an organizational setup (Baillod, 2008).
In conclusion, a manager of an organization has diverse roles which include decision making, duties delegation, planning of the organization, decentralization and monitoring the implementation of various policies adopted by the management (Ortega, Zaragoza & Claver, 2010).This is, however, a responsibility shared by the board of management of the organization that is mandated as having the ultimate role of overseeing the operational activities and endorsement of policies and recommendations made by the manager so as optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization (Budding & Groot, 2008). Other factors such as information and communication within the organization, employee’s relationship and the organization structure at large contribute a lot towards the success of an organization (Baillod, 2008)
However, if a manager fails in acting ethically in executing his duties the performance of an organization would be inefficient and ineffective hence minimal output (Baillod, 2008). Employee’s morale is lowered when there is dishonesty and unaccountability in handling incentives and finance in the various departments. Therefore, the manager of an organization has a basic role of acting ethically and morally for an organization to realize a lasting optimal efficiency and effectiveness in its operation structure (Marchés Publics, 2009).
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