Part 1: Humanism
Humanism is one of key philosophies and ethical studies where issues such as human values, individualism and doctrines among others are involved. The term humanism can be confusing due to different versions developed by different thinkers of the years. However, shows the concept is used to assert notion of a human nature. Currently, the philosophers in this area of study have shifted into secularism (Humanistic Association of North Ireland, 2012).
The first stage of humanism can be traced back in ancient Greece and Rome. Humanism was first introduced in Greece in 5th Century BC. Philosophers at this stage focused on explaining some of religious and social questions about religion. Physical aspects of the earth and the universe were key aspects of this stage of humanity. For example, Protagoras asserted that the sun was not a god but hot metal. Thus, should not be regarded as a god. Democritus was first to propose that matter is a combination of atoms which can be changed.
The second stage of humanism is the Renaissance. At this stage, humanism was destroyed when Roman shifted to Christianity. The man had turned into a deprived, helpless creature but according to Renaissance there was the need for the rebirth of humanity. God remains as a creator and almighty. For example, Leonard and Francis Bacon are some of key philosophers who advocated for the need to embrace new knowledge (Humanistic Association of Northern Ireland, 2012).
The third stage is the 18th C Enlightenment where anti-clericalism and reasoning dominated the stage. Both Voltaire and Diderot are examples of philosophers who proposed that human enlightenment to make the world better for everyone. Voltaire is known for his writings which threatened his life as he tried to enlighten fellow human beings.
The last stage of Humanism lies between 19th century to today. This stage is characterized by politics and ethics elements. Jeremy Benthan and John Staurt Mill, are key philosophers, at this stage. According to philosophers in this stage, ethics are god given but human should work hard to ensure that they play their part by observing required morals.
Part 2: The Thirty Years War
The thirty years’ war started as a religious conflict because of a complex series of events. However, it later turned into a power struggle in Roman Empire. It is important to point out religion was a powerful political wing in the empire and hence it is not possible to isolate the two (Kevin, 2007). The changing nature of people’s thinking and perception about the church and the powers that vested to the pope was a key focus during the thirty years’.
The war spread between states who tried to control various resources. For example, Sweden tries to fight to gain control of Baltic ports which were controlled by the German government. Resources such as the ports were essential at that time as they give the company an opportunity to gain wealth and control movement of people and resources. This was a key aspect to ensure that an empire gained dominance over others (Kevin, 2007).
Religion was also highly involved in the thirty years of war. There were cases when the church was highly struggling to secure land, as there was the contest whether the church should owned land. In addition, two denominations including the Catholics and Protestants were involved in fighting over control of the number of followers (Thomsett, 2011). Each of the denominations engaged in wars of words each trying to dismiss teachings and approaches of the other. The thirty years’ cannot be said to be a religious war, it has several other elements within making it dynastic in nature (Kevin, 2007).
Humanistic Association of North Ireland (2012). The Development Of Humanism
Kevin C. (2007). The Thirty Years' War and German Memory in the Nineteenth Century. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.
Thomsett, M., C. (2011). Heresy in the Roman Catholic Church: a history. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.