An organization is a social entity with different people that managed and structured to meet an objective or aim at a particular goal. All organizations have different administrative structures that give different roles to different departments within the organization. It has the duty to assign roles, subdivide responsibility to the members and authority to undertake various tasks. Organization are termed as open system, they are affected and affect by the environment in which it operates (Argyris and Schon, 1978).
Organizational development can be as improving a business performance and the development of individual staff members. Each organization can be looked at as logical system comprising of different parts or departments. Organizational growth as a process consist of methodologies and planning, leadership design, diversity, organizational design, coaching and balance between life and work.
The main reason of having organization development is to deal with recurrent needs of any successful organization; it involves a centralized co-relation of internal and external experts at hand to find out the process through which a business can use to be become much more attractive to stakeholders. Organizational development is continuous process that a company has to undergo with time. It is always done through help by catalysts or agents and the use of legal appropriate theories and methods from anthropology, applied behavioral science, phenomenology and sociology. Most notably, the change is brought by the leader who is deeply involved in the leadership – an effective process or a transformative leader as opposed to incremental and management based (Rother and Mike, 2009).
While people believe that the techniques and concepts of organization development has become part of any manager because it provides them with the knowledge of marketing, accounting and finance. It is predicted that the management with its departmental heads will develop a boundaries within the organizations development. Organizational development gives a set of management theories that are available to members of the workplace to who feel like they need to improve on the organizational goal achievement. It is advised on what organizational development is and how it can be used to develop an organization.
With organization development there are various intervention and techniques that are planned and put into practice so that they could facilitate or assist in the implementation of certain programmed and result oriented change in the composition, human resources and the various processes within the organization (Argyris and Schon, 2008). The organizational development is systematic plan, as it needs diagnosis, mobilization of resources (which could be technical, financial or human), program development in the entire organization or in the departments within the organization. According Carter and Louis (2004) organizational development is the approach that applies effort to improve different activities in a business. It involves strategy analysis, culture and structure of the organization; it analyzes both formal and informal departments of the organization.
According to Frederick Taylor's theory of motivation, it explains that most staff members are motivated exclusively by the way they are paid and their working capability is therefore work in equivalent to what they are paid. He postulated that staff members or employees are not satisfied with the kind of work they do and only perform better in that particular job when given a direct motivation or reward such as monetary payment. Henry Ford adopted some ideas of Taylor's theory of scientific management and paid their workers considering the production made in a period.
The main reason of having organization motivation is to deal with recurrent needs of any successful organization; it involves a centralized co-relation of internal and external experts at hand to find out the process through which a business can use to be become much more attractive to stakeholders. Organizational development is a continuous process that a company has to undergo with time. It is always done through external support by catalysts or agents and the use of legal appropriate theories and methods from anthropology, applied behavioral science, phenomenology and sociology. Most notably, the change is brought by the leader who is deeply involved in the leadership an effective process or a transformative leader as opposed to incremental and management based (Rother, 2009).
According to Marx Weber's theory of bureaucracy, he held that psychological forces can drive human beings to act in a certain way. Their theory proposes a graduated scale of human needs ranging from basic requirements, to physical needs such as thirst and hunger to high expectations such as the need for self-fulfillment and the want to feel loved. They greatly believed employers would get greater outcome from their employees if they acknowledged the different individual needs of the employees and give out rewards in accordance to the individuals needs. The theory that applies in this social issue is based on Marxist social theory, which advocates for a better societal order. The theory argues that individuals or groups of people or a social class in the society have different capabilities and material and non-material resources. Some group takes advantage of others by not allowing them to be at certain positions.
This process gives the staff members chance to do the decision making of the organization by use of informal and formal means. This could be done by having formal meeting with the staff members to have discos on the decision that have impact on the employees’ lives. The main idea behind participative management is to improve staff members working conditions (Carter, 2004). If employees can be motivated and presented with opportunities to be involved in the in the company’s decision making then their individual performance would rise or improve. This will also push the performance of the company to move high hence leading to increased profits accompanied by workers boost in morale.
The theory established that the social needs of the employers should be the center of focus by an organization. Mayo believed that by just paying the workers is not a complete way to motivating the staff members in a company. He says that the social needs of employees ought to be put into consideration if an organization has to perform well. He recommended that employers should show their employees that they care about their about their social needs and they should also demonstrate interest in every workers abilities to have them perform at their best.
Argyris, C. and Schon, D. (2008), Organizational Learning: A theory of action perspective, Reading MA: Addison-Wesley
Louis L. (2004), Best Practices in Leadership Development and Organization Change, Jossey Bass, ISBN 0-7879-7625-3
Carter, L. (2004), Best Practices in Leadership Development and Organization Change, Jossey Bass, ISBN 0-7879-7625-3
Rother, M. (2009). Organization development: strategies and models. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. p. 114. ISBN 0-87620-540-6. OCLC 39328.
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