the Promotion of Mixed Income Neighborhoods in Hollywood, California
In California, the Los Angeles Metro, government, public organization and communites have worked hard to develop TOD projects in several locations in California. Los Angeles County (LAC) in Southern California is bordered by the Pacific Ocean; and near enough to the southern border of the U.S. that many people have migrated north to LA. Hollywood acts like a magnet for people looking for work in the movie industry and for tourists. years. In fact, the congestion of people and their cars in LAC has made it one of the most crowded areas in the U.S. The six urban areas in the U.S. with the largest regional employment percentage within a half mile of rail and bus stations are scattered throughout the U.S. Only two cities with a larger percentage than LAC are Portland, Oregon and Phildelphia, Pennsylvannia. (Throne-Lyman et al., 2011, p. 28) Portland has a large transit networ and 33.8 percent of the city is within one half mile of “Fixed-Guideway Transit” (FGT) (Throne-Lyman et al., 2011, p. 28) (See fig. 1) Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia has an extensive transit network with 29.8 percent of FGT. LAC has a large transit network and 22.5 percent is FGT. After LAC in the amount of FGT are Minneapolis-St. Paul (19. 6 percent), Atlanta, Georgia (13.7 percent), and Phoenix, Arizonia (11.2 percent). LAC is not alone in needing solutions to congestion and polluton, therefore examing the results of projects is an important task. The results in this chapter are focused on Hollywood in LAC. Three projects in West Hollywood have considerable amounts of data useful for comparing the circumstances of communities over time and whether TOD has offered any positive changes.
LAC has more congestion of cars and people than the other five locations listed above. The LA Metro infrastructure covers a wide area in LAC, but needs for reconstruction, siting more transit stations and building new tranit entrance complexes became a priority of LA Metro in the late 1990s. Hollywold relies mostly upon the Red Line, the Commuter Rail that runs diagonally through LAC from the northwest to the southeast. (See fig. 1) The large red dots in figure one stand for 10,000 or more workers. The intersection of the Light Rail (purple), Commuter Rail (red), and Heavy Rail (dark blue) merge in the north central region of LAC. Figure one shows how the largest number of workers are living in the area close to and surrounding the intersection. Meawhile, other workers spread throughout the county have had little or no fast, efficient transit options in their neighborhoods. Therefefore the LA Metro has worked with TOD development experts, urban planners and commuity members to resolve the problem by offering mass transit to travel to work and creating work opportunities in the neighborhoods.
Figure 1The Los Angeles County Metro (Source: Thorne- Lyman et al. 2011, p. 29)
Data has been collected with a focus on TOD projects in Hollywood City, LAC. Western Hollywood City TOD projects with data available that compares 2001 and data collected mainly in 2010, 2011 and 2012. The parameters considered include identifying the amount of affordable housing in, Metro ridership, land use policies and income distribution because those are four of the classic measurements used to judge the success or failure of TOD projects. Three projects in Western Hollywood City are discussed below, and then, the four parameters are discussed in more detail.
North Hollywood (NoHo) Arts District
The North Hollywood Arts District transit oriented development is a mixed-use bus transit village. The area is located in Los Angeles where the Metropolitan Authority (MTA), Metrolink, and the Antelope Valley Transit Authority offer transportation (TRB, 2004, p. 15). The Los Angeles Neighborhood Initiative (LANI) worked with other stakeholders to make improvements for at TOD project finished in TOD. (See fig. 2) The difference of the collaborative project made the area attractive and comfortable in order to encourage use of the four available bus lines that run between 20 and 40 minutes in frequency. (Parker et al., 2020, p. 118)
Figure 2 NoHo Arts District (Source Parker et al., 2002, p. 118)
The NoHo area is located east of the Hollywood Freeway. (See fig. 4) In figure note that a Metro station is now available in North Hollywood. The station is located east of the Hollywood Freeway and north of Chandler Boulevard. (See fig. 4) NoHo is California’s version of London’s Soho; the Gallery at NoHo Commons is one of the examples of easy access from the Metro transit station to art galleries.
Figure 3North Hollywood (Blue M for Metro) (Source https://firstname.lastname@example.org,-118.373421,15z?hl=en)
The NoHo Arts Park is the anchor for the North Hollywood TOD project. The original project improved the park that was near a Red Line bus stop that stopped for passengers every 20 to 40 minutes. The park was designed in conjunction with opportunities for small retail stores and businesses. The pedestrian traffic increased per day, but mainly to use the park and facilities surrounding it during the evening. (Parker et al., 2002) Retail stores became successful in the new commercial area. Thirty or more new jobs in the neighborhood were created. The design was a success and more car parking has been made available across the street from the park. Many people drive their car to mass transit entrance areas before parking and traveling throughout LAC. (See table 1)
The red triangle in figure 4a emphasizes the Hollywood Western TOD project. The location was chosen because of the urban housing next to the LA Metro Line Red. Figure 4b shows entrances available for mass transit that have been sited there. The location is a suburban area of the City of Los Angeles. (See fig. A-3) The project was completed in two phases. The Hollywood/Western project added sixty affordable-housing 2-story units with direct access to the Metro Red Line. (See fig. 1) The Hollywood Western phase was completed in 2000 (TRB, 2004, p. 432). Next another added 70 affordable housing units, but these units were constructed with wooden frames with 3 to 4 stories. A 10,000 square foot area for retail businesses was added so the neighborhood would have easy access to shopping. A childcare center was built within the retail space (TRB, 2004, p. 432).
Figure 4 a and 4b Hollywood/ Western Project runs parallel to the Metro Red Line (Source: City-data.com
Hollywood/Highland is a highly urbanized area of LAC where the Kodak Theater (annually presenting the Academy Awards), Graumann’s Chinese Theater and the MGM studios are located. (See fig. 5) The Hollywood/Highland project consisted of the construction of retail space equal to 640,000 square feet in area. Seventy five shops and restaurants were constructed in the retail space. Also included were the Kodak Theater, the Grauman’s Chinese Theater (where the Academy Awards are held) and a hotel. The area has many employment types and is also a draw for tourists. In general the retail space consists of retail shops, the theater complex and other entertainment facilities (TRB p. 15). The Metro Redline runs continually with frequent stops only a few minutes apart as can be seen in figure 5 at the bottom right of the Kodak Theater complex.
Figure 5 Hollywood/ Highland showing the location of the Kodak theatre and near-by parking (Source: city-data.com)
The successes at the Hollywood Highland TOD project include an increased land use mix, increased density, and increased employment. The ridership has increased to the point that six-car trains became necessary on the Red Line. Land use was able to be designed in an attractive way because eight land parcels were consolidated for the project.
Housing occupancy by type has been recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau for 2000 and 2010. One of the goals of TOD is to avoid gentrification and to create equitable neighborhoods. In 2000 the total family households was reported to be 23, 120 and in 2010 the number was 22,511. Non-family households in 2000 numbered 17,909 and in 2010 numbered 18,168. The total number of housing units in 2000 were reported to be 24,110 and in 2010 the numer had increased to 24,588. In 2000 the number of occupied housing units number 23,120 and in 2010 the number had fallen to 22,511. In 2000, owner-occupied housing units number 4,985 and renter-occupied housing units numbered 18, 135. In 2010, the number of owner-occupied housing units remained about the same (4,976) nd the renter-occupied housing units had decreased to 24, 416. Each census showed that the average household size for owner-occupied and renter-occupied in both surveys was about 1.5. (See tables 3 and 4)
The number of building permits for single-family home units decreased somewhat from 2005 to 2012. (See fig. 6) The average cost of building permits rose from under $240,000 to over $240,000 from 2005 to 2012 in West Hollywood. (See fig. 6)
Figure 6 housing from 1997 to 2012 (Source city-data.com)
In 2000, the number of single person households was 13,990 and 60.6 percent were age 65 years and older. In 2010 the number of single occupant householders was 13,434, but many households with 2 to 3 occupants made up a significant amount of householders, about 37 percent. In 2000, housing units were not so varied and counted by the census as single-family or multi-family residences.
In 2000 86.4 percent of the total 35,716 residents in West Hollywood were white; 3.1 percent were black and 8.8 percent were Hispanic (or Latino). In 2010, 84.2 percent were whites, 3.2 were blacks, and increased to 10.2 percent Hispanic. The numbers of Asian residents increased from 3.8 percent in 2000 to 5.4 percent in 2010.
Thorne-Lyman (et al., 2011, p. 75) reported a recent project to build affordable rental housing in Los Angeles County with 90 units coupled with 15,000 square feet of retail space and parking.
Thorne-Lyman (et al. 2011, p. 21) reported that people want to live closer to their jobs without having to deal with traffic and congestion. Therefore the connection of dense job clusters ha a larger influence on increasing mass transit ridership than does more housing construction.
The major benefits of reducing car transportation dependence include the following.
- No reliance on gas prices which can be volatile, transportation costs stabilize.
- Disposable household income increases and can be spent locally to raise the communities economy.
- No need to continuously expand the highways and freeways and the accompanying traditional road infrastructures.
- Walking or biking are likely to become part of daily life so people are more healthy and public health costs are decreased.
- A reliable number of mass transit users that gives Metro the ability to gain in the fare collected that can be accounted for as profit. Revenue is generated for transit agencies.
- The successes at the Hollywood Highland TOD project include an increased land use mix, increased density, and increased employment. The ridership has increased to the point that six-car trains became necessary on the Red Line. Land use was able to be designed in an attractive way because eight land parcels were consolidated for the project.
The Metro Red and Purple lines ridership for Hollywood in 1999 and for North Hollywood in 2000 were listed on the Metro site as 147,777 average weekday boardings, 105,849 average Saturday boardings, 72,441 average Sunday and holiday boardings. The total annual boardings for the stations in 2014 was reported to be 38.0 million.
The plans for the Metro Red Line and Metro Purple Line for North Hollywood were expected to net 20,000 more potential riders because the new stations offer easy access to the L.A. business district’s center. (Mo, 2011, p. 13) The Metro reported (2006 Sept. 13, par. 1) that people with other transport alternatives including a car, but chose to take mass transit was increasing from 22 percent in the fall of 2002 to 34 percent in the fall of 2006.
The Hollywood Highland TOD project increased the land use mix, increased density, and increased employment. The ridership has increased and six-car trains became necessary on the Red Line during peak periods of use each day. Land use was designed in an attractive way after eight land parcels were consolidated for the project.
The L.A. Metro reported average daily boardings for February 2010 as147,482 weekday travelers on the Red and Purple lines in February 2010. On Saturdays 93,576 riders were reported (Feb. 2010). Sundays and Holidays during February 2010 reported 82,719 riders. (LACMTA, 2012) Ridership reported for October 2013 on the Red and Purple lines were 169,478 on weekdays, 113,742 on Saturdays, 69,070 on Sundays. The weekday ridership per mile was calculated to be 9,470. (LACMTA) The numbers per mass transit site are recorded in Table 6.
Land use policies
The Westside Subway Extension report (Metro, 2010) included land use plans for an alternative route for the Westside Subway Extension. The alternative was not chosen for that particular project but other parts of the plan were adopted. The maps for the Environmental Impact/ Environmental Consequences are the best examples found about Hollywood in terms of land use. TOD offers the opportunity to organize the existing land uses into a better design for mass transit access and consolidated use. For example, for the Hollywood and Highland Avenue TOD project, 8 land parcels were consolidated to offer the final resulting improved land use design.
Figure 7 is from the “Final land use and development opportunities report 5.0 Environmental Impact/ Environmental Consequences Report” (2010 Aug. 16) The HRT subway along this section of Highland Avenue is identified in black on the left (fig. 7). Figure 7 a shows a thoroughly mixed land use area of mainly commercial, residential, and government/Institutional utility facilities. Smaller parcels of industrial and parking land use are scattered throughout the area. The existing land use was distributed as follows.
- Single-family Residential 0.8%
- Multi-family Residential 11.1%
- Commercial 53.9%
- Government/Industrial 8.8%
- Industrial 13.4 %
- Vacant/Parking 32%, and
- Open space/Other 0%
Note that on the right (see fig. 7b) the land parcels are well organized by use. The main use is for commercial which is organized into parcels that border one another. And then, the next is for residential which is divided into two sections one at the north and one at the south of the area. Finally the governmental and institutional facility are organizes as on large block at the west side of Highland Avenue and a smaller area consolidated at the east central border.
Figure 7a Hollywood’s Highland Avenue existing land uses (left) & 7b proposed change in land use for a proposed station next to an existing HRT Subway station. (LA Metro, 2010, p. 5-32)
The diagram shows how better organization can allow for similar land use to have better access to each other, while at the same time the residents have better access to mass transit and to the commercial areas.
The adopted part of the plan was proposed by the City of L.A, the City of L.A. Redevelopment Agency, Hollywood Community Plan and the Hollywood Redevelopment Plan. The land use regulations that were instituted were the following.
- 0.6 acres of neighborhood commercial per 1000 residents,
- 0.2 acres of community commercial per 1,000 residents,
- residential densities were established, and
- low density residential would equal 65 percent.
Where land TOD takes place with the construction of HRT systems in Hollywood, the land use transitions and intensifications took place at the same time as the new system is built. The land development takes place at a gradual rate whereas; the transit construction is on a fast track to finish as soon as possible. A priority goal is to use the tools available to significantly improve ridership.
In 2012, the housing units with mortgages in West Hollywood were paying a median property tax of $4,647 in 2011, whereas the housing units without mortgages paid a media $2,913 in property taxes (city-data.com). Building permits for single-family homes ranged from $219,000 (average cost) for 2 buildings in 1997 to the highest number of 48 buildings in 2003 with an average cost of $251,200 to 6 buildings in 2012 with an average cost of $433,800 (city-data.com). The lowest average cost was in 1999 at $183,200 and the highest was in 2010 with an average cost of $573,900 (city-data.com).
Another perspective is the household income distribution (See fig. 8a) In 2011 the amount of various household incomes were in the first quarter of the $0 to $max as the distribution is shown, in figure 8a. The trend was from more households in the lower income to finally the least in the highest income. The 2011 housing values showed the largest amount distributed in the midrange. (See fig 8b)
Meanwhile the median household income in West Hollywood in 2011 was reported to be $48,598 and $38,914 in 2000 (city-data.com). The estimated per capita income was reported as $50,171 in 2011 (city-data.com). The change in per capita income between 2000 and 2009 was +67.8 percent (city-data.com). The change in the median household income between 2000 and 2009 was reported as +112.8 percent. (city-data.com) The change in median non-family income from 2000 to 2009 was +26 percent. (ciy-data.com)
Figure 8a and b Household income distribution in 2011 and the house value distribution in 20ll (city-scape.com
West Hollywood City, LAC City Data http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/West-Hollywood-North-West-Hollywood-CA.html and https://www.google.co.uk/maps/place/Rugby+Dremail@example.com,-118.3811201,17z/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x80c2bebaf7407e67:0x34f2455416c93080?hl=en
Source: http://www.city- data.com/bs/?q=hollywood+highland&w=West+Hollywood%2C+CA&bpsubmit=Search
Parker, T., McKeever, M. , Arrington, G.B. and Smith-Heimer, J. 2002. Statewide Transit-Oriented Development Study: Business, Factors for Success in California." Final Report. Business, Transportation and Housing Agency, CA Dept. of Transportation
Thorne-Lyman, A., Wood, J., Zimbabwe, S., Belzer, D. Breznau, S., Fogarty, N., Brennan, T. Tumlin, J. and Yake, C. Year “Transit-oriented development strategic plan / metro TOD program.” This report was prepared by the Center for Transit-Oriented Development with Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates for the Metro TOD Program in Portland, OR.http://ctod.org/portal/book/export/html/2317
U.S. Census Bureau. (2007, January 12). State & county Quickfacts: Allegany County, N.Y. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from http://quickfacts.census.gov. 2000 and 2012 http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_00_SF1_DP1
Figure A- 1 A-1 Location of Los Angeles County in Southern California Source: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/maps/california_map.html
Figure A- 2 Map of LOS ANGELES County Metro Rail System 2009
(Source: Mo et al., p. 17)