The violence of white southerners towards African, Republicans and their sympathizers was extremely evident throughout the reconstruction. This can be explained by the fact that they felt threatened by legislation to offer rights for former slaves. There violence was motivated by the civil rights bill of 1987, which declared right to all slaves. The white southerners thought the bill would reduce them to social equality and started the violence against the Republicans and their sympathizers as the way of resting the move. This bill threatened the economy of the southerners because the African Americans were extremely useful in their economic growth, therefore
They also targeted republicans because they felt the radicalism was forcing them into the agreement to their hideous program, and decided to use brute force on the republicans (Bartley 34). This is so because republicans took decisive control of reconstruction. They resulted in violence because the signing of the bill could be a declaration of war against them. Therefore, they felt it was their duty to take part in the battle via the violence against anybody who was supporting the bill. They wanted to make the northern radicals understand that military supervision of southern elections and bill meant the war. Hence, they targeted their frustrations to the African, Republicans and their sympathizers.
Similarly, the white southerner’s violence against African, Republicans and their sympathizers increased during the civil war. Organized groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and white southern men committed beatings and murders. This is so because during the reconstruction the white southerners had extremely limited legislative power, therefore they resulted in violence to control African Americans. Thus, the reason for white southerner’s violence towards African, Republicans and their sympathizers was mainly due to reconstruction.
Although the reconstruction was meant to bring civil rights to all, this did not apply to women entirely. For instance, the fifteenth amendment applied to men only. The reconstruction discriminated both white and black women because they both remained disenfranchised. However, it should be noted that black women played a significant role in politics, although they were not allowed to vote. Women actively took part in political meetings and organized political societies. Women contributed greatly socially, economically and politically, but they received severe criticism from the public.
However, the negative perception does not persist because the women's movement has made public to respect and accept their rights. Women have received empowerment, which allows them to contribute to the society. The empowerment of women via education not only reflects the success of the women’s movement, but also continues to reinforce the significance of women’s experiences and contributions. Globally, the recognition of the significance of women is expanding. The international women’s day is an example to demonstrate the necessity of women’s participation, development and equality in meeting global peace and social progress. This has made the whole society appreciate and recognize the contribution of women.
In the 21th century, women have managed to pursue higher quality employment opportunities, which was not the case in the 19th century. Women movement has encouraged women to take advantage of education in order to get higher paying jobs like men. In additional, feminism has allowed women to get equal rights and opportunities to control their life and have respect just like men. Therefore, women’s movement has managed to negate negative perceptions in the 21st century via women empowerment and bills that fight for their rights.
The transition of income inequality during the process of economic development is the big issue in the modern American economy. This has been attributed to economic progress, such as technological change verse policies of interventions such as taxation and redistribution of income among others.
For instance, during the civil war the top 1 percent of American households was about 10 percent of the nation’s income. Currently, the same group is attributed to about 19 percent of the nation’s income. This indicates there is still inequality in income distribution despite the technological change.
The land inequality in the America history has led to subsequent effect on economic development. This is so because the land ownership in1920 is similar to the current where it is adequately concentrated to the elite (Adamopoulos 257). This has led to industrialization challenges that have affected the American economy, which was the case in the 19th century. Therefore, the land distribution and its transition to the modern economy is the reason why the current income distribution is not different to that of the 19th century.
Although currently America is less economically egalitarian than in the1920, this does not make income distribution from that of the 19th century. This is so because the income inequality is due to political, social and economic challenges that have not received proper reform to change the situation. For instance, instead of finding policies that will reduce the income inequality, the wealth is still concentrated at the very top, which has increased the disparity. Similarly, the worker's wage has not improved given the increase of living. Therefore, there is no great difference between the income distribution of the 19th century and today’s.
Reconstruction was the move to reconstruct and reform the political, economical and social activities in the south after the civil war. This was meant to end racial discrimination and give black southerners their civil rights. Therefore, this move made things better for southern blacks. This is so because they were given legal rights, especially freedom. For instance, the reconstruction led to emancipation that enabled black southerners to own land to farm that enabled them to provide food for their families.
Many historians believe that reconstruction resulted in significant changes to blacks. This is so because as slaves, black southerners worked extremely intensively under the constant threat of physical punishment. They had no legal right to vote, marry or even education. They were constantly sold and moved against their will, which led to the breaking of their families. Therefore, the reconstruction managed to make things better for the black southerners. The reconstruction brought social change to the black southerners. They were regally allowed to marry, worship, form private groups and receive educations, which was covered by the government. However, absolute segregation of public places much later and was a matter of law (Ferrell 95).
However, the south did not take the reconstruction lightly because it ruined the economy and brought political power struggles. Therefore, they used dubious legislation and intimation to try to keep the status quo. This led to segregation because the black southerners were not allowed to mingle with the white southerners. Similarly, they did every to prevent black southerners to gain civic power and passed laws to limit opportunities to black. Although the black southerners received challenges from white, the reconstruction made things better for them.
Adamopoulos, Tasso. "Land inequality and the transition to modern growth." Review of Economic Dynamics (2008): Vol. 11 Issue 2, p257-282.
Bartley, Numan. The Rise of Massive Resistance: Race and Politics in the South during the
1950s. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000. Ferrell, Claudine L. Reconstruction. Westport (Conn.: Greenwood press, 2003. Print.