There have been several theories and perspectives that have been advanced in the past. The criminal theories expose many instances of the oppressive practices of domination, inhumanity, and inequality in the structure of power in most communities. In the classical theory by Beccaria, the argument is that the benefits of the crime outweigh the costs involved in committing that crime. The theory is influenced byrational choice especially in deterrence. The punishment in this theory was not based on substantial evidence, but it was rather based on deterrence so that crime offenders could avoid participating in certain crimes due to the prospective punishment that they could face. There was a huge instance of inequality in that the accused were not allowed to present evidence for their defense. Another theory is the positivist theory that explains that crime is either caused or determined, and a high emphasis is placed on deficiencies that are biological. This theory is determinant on science to prove the crime.
The gendering of crime-feminist theory is based on the assumption that women suffer particular injustices based on their sex. This theory is feministic in that it stresses the significance of the divisions in gender in the society. The main cons of the feminist theory are that it is based on patriarchy which a theory is purporting to explain that men are dominant in the society. According to Comack ( 1999), an example of patriarchy is that men are the heads of the family and women are supposed to work for the men especially the housework without getting any compensation in terms of pay. Another con is that women are generally stereotyped, for example; women are better child keepers than men. The pros of the gendering of the crime feminist theory are that people reject the norm of patriarch family and diversification and freedom. The feminist theory is also focused on the women gender and is biased on the, male gender.
Comack, Elizabeth (1999). New possibilities for a feminism ‘in’ criminology? From
dualism to diversity. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 41, 161-170