Scientific Method steps
Several ways can be used to state scientific method and the exact scientific method steps depend on how the steps are broken. However, the basic steps involves making observations, coming up with observation explanation using hypothesis proposal, testing validity of the explanation by designing and performing an experiment, and accepting or rejecting the given explanation through data analysis if necessary and even try coming up with a better one. The scientific method steps are important because they attempt to minimize prejudice or biasness in the experimenter. Even a scientist with best intentions cannot escape bias. Bias originates from cultural and personal beliefs, thus, any human can filter information on the basis of own experience. This variation in filtering has unfortunately forced scientists to make a preference of one outcome over the other. The scientific method therefore provides an approach that is objective and standardized and in so doing, the results are improved. Uses of standardized approach make scientists feel confident as they are made to stick to facts and have limited personal, preconceived notions influence.
The term pseudo means fake and the best way to spot fake is by having enough knowledge about the real thing. In this case knowing scientific facts does not mean knowing science; rather it is an understanding of science nature that counts; the scientific methods and their aspects which make it possible for reliable physical universe conclusions to be arrived at. In general, science always follows a formal inquiry system and the scientific theories can be challenged and revised by experts in order to fit emerging theories. However pseudo-science is belief-based and opposes contradictions. Its hypothesis cannot be revised in order to fit new information or data. Scientists have a continuous ideas disproval to achieve better understanding of nature. Pseudo-scientists on the other hand focus on proving theories so as to make their claims plausible. Their beliefs tend to be vague and greatly exaggerated and in order to sound impressive, they use complicated technical language. Pseudo-scientists focus on their ideas confirmation, rather than finding refuting evidence.
William Harvey (1578-1657), father of modern physiology, became the first researcher that discovered the body’s blood circulation. Though this knowledge is taken for granted, people were not aware that blood is pumped by the heart through its course. Harvey was born in 1578 in England, eldest son in a family of seven sons. He studied medicine at Cambridge University and in 1597 he received his first Bachelor of Arts degree and in 1602, he earned his medical degree at a medical school in Padua, Italy. He returned to London where he successfully became a medical practitioner as he continued with medical research. His great contribution to medicine was the discovery of blood circulation where he got convinced that Galen’s ideas about movement of blood were wrong, especially ideas that it is in the liver that blood was formed and later absorbed by the body, and that the blood flow was through the dividing wall of the heart (septum).Harvey first did a heartbeat study, he established existence of pulmonary circulation (heart-lung-heart) process and noted the one-way blood flow. He also realized the amount of blood that the heart pumped-continuous circular flow. His discovery is considered great contribution in the medicine field because he established the modern physiology science. Though his work was acknowledged finally long after he died, his stature rose to be one of the most revered physicians in England and one of modern medical science founders.
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