- Some individuals are born with a hole between the two sides of their heart this means that blood can mix between the left and right sides of the heart. Explain why this is a problem and types of symptoms this person might exhibit?
The problem with hole between the two sides is the mixing of the blood, which then raises the pressure in the lungs. The result is that there is reduced oxygen in the blood that goes into the body. Symptoms may include difficulty in breathing, short breath and respiratory infections in children.
- Cholesterol can build up in the arteries, forming plaques that reduce the overall size of the interior of the artery. What do you predict this will do to the blood pressure of the individual and why?
The blood pressure of an individual with plaques is expected to increase. This is because the interior side of the arteries decreases (Muehlenbein 505).
- As blood pressure increases, arteries can become damaged and weakened. Explain how increased blood pressure causes this?
A high blood pressure causes an increase in force on the arteries. This increase in force causes tears in the artery walls thus weakening the arteries.
- Many insecticides are acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. This means that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine stays in the space between nerves and muscles and causes the muscles to continue to contract. Why would this be deadly to insects?
This is deadly to insects since the insecticide prevents the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from performing its life functions. This causes an overstimulation of the insect’s muscles that result to death.
- Since humans also use acetylcholine, why can we use these insecticides and yet survive?
Humans can survive the use of insecticides since the respiratory and circulatory system is different from that of the insects. The respiratory and circulatory systems in the insects allow easy movement of the insecticide.
- Why did you need to calculate percent change in heart rates instead of simply comparing initial and final between individuals?
Using percent change provides a clearer picture of the change that occurred in the heart rates between individuals.
- Design an experiment to test the following hypothesis. Students who are taking exams are under stress and will exhibit a higher pulse rate?
Hypothesis: students who are taking exams are under stress and will exhibit a higher pulse rate
Control: No exam
Sample size: 100 students
Independent variable: exam
Dependent Variable: Pulse rate
Standardized variable: students
Muehlenbein, Michael P. Human evolutionary biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2010. Print