Management by Objective (MBO) is management type that involves a collaborative approach where subordinate staff and managers determine the organization’s objective jointly. There are four common steps followed to come up with Management by objective. The first step is setting of the goal (Tommy, 2013). At this stage, the top management in a joint consultation with other managers defines the organizations objectives. When clear objectives and key result areas are defined, the result is to be communicated to all members. The second step is manager-subordinate participation; at this step, both subordinate and managers are required to meet and determine individual goals (Tommy, 2013). This ensures that everyone takes part in goal setting. The third step, this step involves matching of goals and resources. Management is expected to ensure that proper tools are made available to a subordinate to ensure that the objective is achieved (Tommy, 2013). The fourth step is where the implementation plan is carried out. With the availability of resources, the set goals are to be implemented by the subordinate and constant review and appraisal done. This method of management is fostering commitment as everyone feels part of the whole process and being that individual interest is taken care of, subordinates feel highly motivated to work as their interest is also being implemented.
Some of the capabilities of E-mails include conducting marketing surveys and carry out promotion of services or products being sold by a business. Its advantage is that it is very easy to use and relatively faster. Its disadvantage is that those who use the internet can only use it (Levin, 2013). Cell phones can be used to communicate business issues to people far away, as far as even beyond the national border. The phones are currently relatively cheap, which is the major advantage. The disadvantage is that irresponsible people can use it in a wrong way. It is also not very confidential (Levin, 2013). Video conferences have the ability to be used to demonstrate how to operate sophisticated products to the customers. The advantage is ability to conduct interviews and live conversations with those who are distant apart. The disadvantage of videoconference is the cost. It is relatively costly and not easily afforded by most people, which limit the operations (Levin, 2013). Telecommunication is imperative as it makes easier communication among the management and the subordinate even when they are in different locations. However, telecommunication is not very good for disseminating confidential information (Levin, 2013). Cost of procuring and maintaining telecommunication is also very high, making it not very friendly venture.
Cultural intelligence is the potential of an individual to effectively functions that are characterized by the cultural diversity (Livermore, 2012). This intelligence is the capability of an individual that is in line with contemporary conceptualizations; this is because of, the ability that is more than that of general mental ability. This ability gives people opportunity to function where there are diverse cultures and practices (Livermore, 2012). Cultural intelligence can be enhanced when one becomes aware of other people’s cultural intelligence and the culture from where one lives. This intelligence can be very useful in understanding diversified interest of the subordinates in an organization, and adapt to the dynamics of the business environment (Livermore, 2012).
The main reasons as to why most employees resist change is the fear of losing their jobs. They believe that the change may render them jobless (Anderson, 2012). The other reason is lack of required skills needed for the new project. Those employees without the skills required for the new business will not recommend change. Some employees also resist change because they are not motivated to work and they would not wish to add more responsibility to their present tasks. The fourth reason is the feeling of fulfillment. Those employees that have attained their fulfillment level which the highest level will not embrace change. Others resist with an intention to sabotage leadership of the rival managers (Anderson, 2012). Those subordinates or managers in wrangles may work hard to scuttle the project suggested by the rival just to sabotage. When employees feel that, the project will not be beneficial to them, they will not feel encouraged to welcome the change. To help discourage the change resistance, management needs to communicate the importance of the change (Anderson, 2012). There is also a need to incorporate all staff members in the planning stage; this will confer the logic of being part of the whole project.
Most breakdowns in communication are because of noise, which is anything that can alter the message by interfering with the communication process (Berlo, 2011). Some of the noises include distractions, incompatible electronic apparatus, and ambiguous words. These communication problems can be easily resolved by paying attention to the feedback, which is the ways through which the receiver fails to respond or responds to the message. It is important to understand your audience more accurately and take the medium that can be easily accessed by the audience (Berlo, 2011). The cost of the medium picked should not more than the benefit accrued from the communication.
Anderson, D. (2011). Beyond Change Management: Advanced Strategies for Today’s Transformational Leaders. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Berlo, D. (2011). The Process of Communication. New York: Cornel University Press.
Levin, B. (2013). Organizational Behavior: Individuals, Groups, and telecommunications. (4th Ed.). New York: PR.
Livermore, D. (2012). Leading with Cultural Intelligence. New York: AMACOM.
Tommy, C. (2013). Leadership and Management in the Contemporary World. California: San Francisco.