- Discuss the research proposition for the article. What was the purpose of the article? What was the problem being addressed? What was the research question? What hypotheses were tested (if any)?
The research proposition for the article is that what impact the violent television programs (that have a harmful effect on the customers and the society) may have on the memory of ads of people. The purpose of the article is to help the readers understand and analyze the impact of violent television programs on the brand advertisement effectiveness and also find out the reasons why advertisers sponsor violent television programs.
The research problem being addressed is that inspite of the fact that the television programs are increasingly violent and these are thought to have a negative impact on the society, why the advertisers still sponsor the violent programs. It is important to recollect that for any brand advertisement to be truly effective, the target audience should be able to remember the brand that was advertised and the message in the advertisement . The research is conducted to analyze the impact of TV programs on the memory of ads.
The research hypothesis test the relationship between the television violence and memory for brand messages.
- What was the main research method used? Did they use a quantitative, qualitative, or a mixed method approach?
The main research method used in the study was a meta-analysis. Both quantitative and a qualitative analysis were used in the research study. The research was conducted on the basis of secondary research data analysis. The author referred 12 studies as a part of the current research on the basis of certain inclusion criteria. A research study was included in the study if it involved at least one violent program, non-violent program, TV commercial and memory recall measure for the advertisement commercial.
- Find at least two peer-reviewed articles in the literature on meta-analysis and discuss what meta-analysis is and how it differs from a literature review.
The technique of meta-analysis was introduced by Heberlein and Baumgartner in the year 1978 in a research study that investigated the factors affecting response rates to paper and pencil questionnaires . In the technique of meta-analysis the data from each research is coded and quantitative comparisons are made across the various research studies. The approach of meta-analysis provides a clearer and parsimonious review than the previous research discussions . The results of meta-analysis are quantitative in nature and therefore the researcher gets an idea about the possible impact of a procedure against all published research studies rather than an illustrative review in the standard literature review procedures.
Meta-analysis is the statistical analysis of the large collection of the analysis results from various individual research studies with the purpose of integrating the research findings for analysis . The meta-analysis is therefore a methodological approach that can be used to combine the results of the individual research studies on the same subject in order to produce a comprehensive quantified and reproducible synthesis . The advantage of using the technique of meta-analysis is that it reduces the arbitrary elements of the traditional narrative reviews to a concise form through a systematic and reproducible methodology in such a manner that another researcher who has the access to the same data can replicate the research and arrive at the similar conclusions .
- Based on the findings from the Bushman and Phillips article, write three hypotheses of your own that could be tested in future research.
A hypothesis is a formal statement that highlights the relationship between the variables and is tested directly . The predicted relationship between the variables may turn out to be true or false after the testing of hypothesis. If one hypothesis is rejected, the other one may be accepted.
The two types of hypothesis are the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis. The rejection of the null hypothesis indicates that the alternative hypothesis is true and it is accepted .
Based on the research findings from the Bushman and Phillips article , the following three hypotheses may be constructed that can be tested in thfutureue research studies.
- Null Hypothesis (Ho) = Violent programs on television increase the television TRP rates.
Alternate Hypothesis (H1) = Violent programs on television have no impact on the television TRP rates.
- Null Hypothesis (Ho) = There is a strong relationship between the variables television violence and audience memory of brand advertisement messages.
Alternate Hypothesis (H1) = There is no relationship between variables television violence and audience memory of brand advertisement messages.
- Null Hypothesis (Ho) = There is a relationship between advertisement on violent TV programs and level of brand awareness.
Alternate Hypothesis (H1) = There is no relationship between advertisement on violent TV programs and level of brand awareness.
Bushman, B. J., & Philips, C. M. (2001). If the television program bleeds, Memory for the advertisement recedes. American Psychological Society.
Cook, C., Fred, H., & Thompson, R. L. (2006). A meta-analysis of response rates in web-or internet-based surveys. Educational and psychological measurement, 821-836.
Laroche, P., & Soulez, S. (2012). Meta-analysis for marketing research. Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 79-104.
Murthy, S. N., & Bhojanna, U. (2009). Business Research Methods. New Delhi: Excel Books India.
Tayie, S. (2005). Research Methods and Writing Research Proposals. Cairo: Pathways to Higher Education.