The children bureau is an act that was to be established in the department of labor. The publication had the description of what the creation of the children bureau and how it will execute its services and also the resources it requires in its implementation and achievement of its objectives (Government printing office, p. 1). The bureau was meant to investigate and report to the department of labor all matters pertaining to children welfare and life among all the classes of the people of the United States with its focus more on infant mortality, birth rate, orphanage, juvenile courts, desertion, dangerous occupation, accidents and diseases, employment and legislation affecting children in the U.S.A.
The Children’s Bureau was authorized by act of 62nd congress, approved on the 9th April 1912 and began its operation on 23rd of August 1912. Its establishment was founded on the belief of many individuals and associations interested in the protection and betterment of children and that the federal government had a part to play in the provision of these services. However, the act did not define the age at which childhood end nor did the state have a uniform definition on the same.
Infant mortality investigation was the first and immediate question to handle given the small force available to the bureau. The strategy for selecting a subject for investigation was that it should be fundamental to social welfare, of popular interest, and serve a real human need. The subject was challenging because the United States had no general system of birth registration thus making it impossible to state the actual infant deaths (Government printing office, p. 6). The bureau was incapacitated by lack of medical staff and therefore it was to confide itself to the social, industrial and economic surrounding of the family until it secures trained sanitarian.
On child labor study, the bureau was to come up with a summary of legislation which contain the minimum age, hours of labor, night work sand prohibited employment. Methods of securing employment certificate which serves in part as a method of enforcement of the minimum age provision. Statistics of child labor which gives the number of children at work by age, type of occupation and their localities. The record of children at work which gives the statistics of children employed.
Birth registration, an aid in protecting the lives and rights of children was the first pamphlet to be issued. This was meant to record the statistics of births in the United States. Body serving campaigns were to be put in place in order to advocate against infant mortality (Government printing office, p. 13). This was to be achieved through annual publications showing the result of the effects of such campaigns. There were publications distributed in 109 cities to educate the citizens on baby saving methods. Since results showed that many infant deaths were caused by pre-natal condition or injury and accidents during birth, prenatal care was to be introduced. This was meant to teach about prenatal conditions that would help in reducing infant mortality. Other publications were to be issued educating on child care from infancy to childhood.
The bureau was to become a reservoir of information upon all matters pertaining to the welfare of the children and children life, it therefore meant it would have to create a library where it would contain all relative work from all over the world where such work was going on. The bureau was meant to deal with the total welfare of the children; looking at the environment surrounding the child labor and try to improve their welfare in all classes of the American society. Its objectives were to eradicate infant mortality, children diseases and accident, protect the children from child labor and legislations affecting children in the USA.
The article Standards of Child Health, Education and Social Welfare, give a detailed recommendation on what should be done on the issues covered about children welfare such as the eradication of child labor by defining the age of childhood which was set at 16 years, the function of juvenile court, legal measures to protect children, essentials of a community child-welfare program, foster care services among others (U. S, Children's Bureau, p. 6).
The issues that were highlighted in the report of the chief children bureau for the department of labor, that are not answered in that report, their recommendation are well outlined in this article. It outlines the appropriate ways of cubing infant mortality rate and how to care for the infants and children including the sick and physical handicapped children.
In addressing most of the issues addressed in the first report, it recommended on how such education could be integrated in the school system and there to be provision of library services for children and youths. The library should be fully serviced to provide adequate and relevant materials that offer sufficient information on the subject (U. S, Children's Bureau, p. 18). A program concerned with child labor and youth employment with two main objective first, protective designs to prevent exploitation and premature employment and the working conditions. Secondly was educational advisory that purposed at the provision of training and guidance.
Government printing office. "First annual report of the chief, children's bureau." annual report of chief, children's bureau (1913): 20. Print.
U. S, Children's Bureau. "Standards of Child Health, Education and Social \Welfare."FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION287 (1942): 21. Pint: retrieved from: http://www.mchlibrary.info/history/chbu/20876.PDF