The minimum concept of morality is an endeavour to recognize the basis of morality which is independent of culture. It assumes an objective quality of morality is present. In the view, to be happy in the short term, sometimes short term pain is required, meaning that happiness can vary with time. Morality is conduct with the guidance of impartial reason. Morality requires that we must have impartial consideration for every individual’s interests. Moral judgement must always have backing of good reasons. Rationality enables individuals to make choices which are free, enables them to be centres of action that are autonomous and hence to be different and superior to other lesser animals.
In hypothetical imperatives, commands are dependent on the goals that are deemed to be fulfilled. These goals are specific and depend on personal situations, desires, dispositions and specific human goals. Hypothetical imperatives apply in specific circumstances only and to specific people who have these goals and desires. Categorical imperatives are impartial and universal. They are universal because everybody would act precisely in the same way by virtue of being rational. They are considered impartial because their own biases do not guide their actions; they are guided by the fact that they respect the autonomy and dignity of every person and they do not they respect others before placing their ambitions first.
The first problem to moral philosophy is relativism. Relativism is the idea that knowledge, in specific moral knowledge, varies to individual or cultural standards and not to universal or objective standards. That means that moral codes are defined by various cultures and individuals and not by methodology, one people or God. The other problem to moral philosophy is scepticism. Scepticism is having a basic tendency to be in doubt of the accessibility and existence of objective truth and has been persistent since birth. In James Rachel’s view, relativists are always moving in the opposite direction from an observation of irreconcilable differences to the belief that no truth exists. He says that the reality does not follow these premises.
One of the main theories of philosophy is determinism. Determinism is a philosophical ides that views that every state of affairs or event including action and decision is the necessary and inevitable consequence of the antecedent state of affairs. Determinism is different from pre-determinism. Pre-determinism is an idea that the future and past were determined in the beginning of the universe. Another philosophical theory is relativism. Relativism is the philosophical idea that each and every point of view is equally valid and truth is relative to every individual
Moral subjectivism is a moral theory which claims that what is wrong and right depends on what the subject (you) happens to think or feel is wrong or right. It amounts to denial of any significant kind of moral principle and any particular kind of moral argumentation and criticism. Cultural relativism is a moral theory with the view that wrong and right are determined by the specific set principles and rules that the relevant culture happens to hold at the specific time. It claims that we should not criticize actions of those in different cultures to ours.
Moral philosophy is the field of philosophy that deals with theories of ethics, that is, how we should live our lives. One of the theories is metaethics. This theory deals with morality. It is concerned with the nature of morality, the moral language and what morality is. The other area is normative ethics which is concerned with providing a moral fame work which should be used to work out the actions that are good and those that are bad, what is good and what is wrong.