Members of missionary orders spearheaded the churches’ evangelization of Native Americans in the 16th century. Who were these missionaries? Whose side were they on European or the American original peoples and why? Elaborate and provide examples.
In the 16th century, there were a number of missionaries who spearheaded the churches’ evangelization of Native Americans. The time of the age of exploration, the Europeans realized that there are many people with different cultures especially in America. This is what caused missionaries to be sent in order to spread Christianity. Most the missionaries were sent by some of the countries that would later colonize Native Americans. Examples of those countries were Spain, France, Portugal and England. There are some missionaries who took the orders to spread Christianity to heart and thought that it was a great opportunity to educate the natives about God. Some examples of these missionaries were Christopher Columbus who believed that he was sent by God to spread the word of God to all people.
This shows that Columbus was on the side of the native people. The other missionaries are Juan de Padilla, Francisco de Coronado and Fr Jacques Marquette. Fr Padilla was able to start a mission while preaching and educating people about God in 1542 (Bunson). Fr Padilla also thought that that what he was doing was for the good of the native people because everyone has a right to know more about God and the Bible. The catholic priests are the ones who have made most Native Americans to be Catholics.
Leaders in Latin America lead the area out of Spanish rule in the tumultuous twenty-year span from 1806 to 1826. The path each nation followed to independence was similar yet different. Compare and contrast two countries routes to independence (except Brazil)
That is when Simon Bolivar ran to New Granada and he was able to form a new army. Most of the people had lost their need for independence except for the blacks and the mulatteos in Venezuela. Most of the people who were against the war were the elites. This is because they saw the war was only been fought by the common people. In 1813, Bolivar invaded Venezuela with so much velocity and they used the guerrilla warfare tactics. Their motto was fighting to the death. They were able to capture some of the towns in Caracas by defeating the Spanish troops. This wins were short lived as the Spanish troops usually came back and caused Bolivar to run once again. There were so many casualties in this war between Bolivar troops and the Spanish troops. In 1819, that is when Bolivar was able to defeat the Spanish troops because he had a large number of troops (Chasteen).
The fight for independence in Chile began in 1810 and ended in 1826 when all the Spanish troops left the country. In the fight for independence not all, the citizens of Chile were in support of the war. The war began as political movement that was started by the elites in Chile who wanted to be free from the colonial rulers and eventually ended up in civil wars. The fight for independence was done in three different stages, which begins with the Patria Vieja then followed by reconquista and finally it ended with the Patria Nueva. The leaders who were involved in the Chilean war were Bernard O’Higgins, Jose De San Martin and José Miguel Carrera. There were three political powers before Chile fought for independence and they were the royalist, the extremists and the moderates. At that time, the moderates were the popular and they sought for the reforms to be done slowly. This is because they fear being told by the colonials of being traitors. The royalists did not want any reform made so that they can continue to have their normal lives. In April 10 1811, Figueroa mutiny broke out when it was during an election in the town of Santiago. This mutiny was under the leadership of Tomas de Figueroa who was captured and killed. This mutiny did in fact accomplish its mission because it was able to interfere with that particular election.
In the elections, the moderates won most of the seats but the few extremist that won were very outspoken because they wanted to be independent. Jose Miguel Carrera was among the extremist who used deadly means to acquire power and he was able to succeed in the end of 1811. While he was the leader, he was able to change the constitution that made sure no outside power could make any orders and have an effect, one of the newspapers known as the La Aurora de Chile was always supporting the movement of independence (Chasteen). The reign of Carrera came to an end during the disaster of Rancagua where he was defeated by Mariano Osorio’s troops in 1814. This led to the rise of Bernard O’Higgins and San Martin. This two formed army that will be able to fight in order for them to reclaim Santiago. They used guerrilla warfare tactics in their assault. They were able to win the war and 1823 they were able to have independence.
The ethnic composition of Latin America was complex. Write an essay in which you discuss the basic unions that took place from the beginning of the conquest to the 19th century. Discuss how, why and the outcome.
There were many unions that were formed in the beginning of the conquest up to the 19th century. Most of the unions were unable to continue functioning because of internal conflicts or problems with their leaders. One of the most notable unions that were able to live long was Gran Colombia. Gran Colombia consisted of Venezuela, Peru, Colombia, Guyana the western side, Panama and Ecuador. When Bolivar was able to defeat New Granada the government formulated a federal republic. In Gran Colombia, its capital was Bogota. The president was Simon Bolivar. The main reason that caused the formation of this union was because all the territories that were members were all from countries that were colonized by the Spanish empire (Bushnell). Most of the nations at that time were not all free therefore; the president of Gran Colombia was given military support.
This is what Bolivar used to get military support that was used in the fight against the Spanish empire that was still in Venezuela. Most parts of Venezuela were able to become independent especially after the battle of Carabobo. The union also helped other nations under Spanish rule to gain their independence a good example was Peru. The performance of Bolivar and Santander is what made them be elected in 1826 as the president and the vice president. When the fight against the Spanish empire ended this is what caused Gran Colombia to start having problems because people started having problems between one another. Most of the people did not have the same vision that Bolivar had for Latin America. This caused the dissolution of this union in 1831.
What was the cold war and how did the cold war and the dictator work together in Latin America? How did non dictatorial leaders meld or not with the cold war era
The cold war had a profound effect in the relationship between United States and Latin American countries. This is because their region was used as some sort of a battlefield because people from Soviet Union were fighting for communism while America was fighting for capitalism. The countries in Latin America whose leaders were known to be dictators used force to change people’s ideologies. These countries got their funds from the communist countries especially soviet unions and Cuba. There were a lot of people who fought against communism and thus wanted to adopt the American ideology of how the country should be ruled (Prevost and Vanden). This caused the dictator leaders to use any means to stop this people from progressing with their insurgences thus lead to the death of so many people.
The reason why some Latin American countries whose leaders were dictators supported Soviet Union was because they were promised economic, military and political support. Even the ones who were non-dictators found this to be a very good deal because of the poor economy that most Latin American countries were having. There were some leaders who were non-dictators in Latin America who did not listen to the Soviet Union promises and remained partial. This was because they did not want their countries to have any violence in their countries. The problem was that no matter what they wanted to do they continued to have problems because the whole of Latin America continued to have economic and political problems (Prevost and Vanden). They also had problems with their neighbours who had dictators as leaders and thus wanted them to follow their leadership thus they found ways to start wars with them.
Europe and North America’s influence in Latin America deepened and widened in the second half of the 19th century. Explain this influence in two of the following three ways: economic, politically and culturally
North America brought the imperialism to Latin America thus; it was able to influence their politics, economy and culture. Some of the Latin America countries adopted democracy to their politics. The reason why North America got involved with Latin America began after the Spanish American war that occurred in 1898. The American got involved because they felt that Cuba and Puerto Rico had not yet gotten their independence and it was not fair. Europe helped Latin America in the late 19th century to develop economically (Close). This happened when British began to invade Latin America when United States gained their independence. The British fought with the Spanish people to gain control of Latin America and ended up forming friendship with the native people.
After Latin America gained independence the economy of their countries declined therefore, Europe took charge and improved the infrastructure. They also began an exporting system thereby attracting new investors from all over the world. The people in Latin America also through assimilation with the United States and Europe they were able to change their culture. They began to learn how to speak in English and French. The Peruvian culture is mostly adopted from the Spanish and American cultures. Their sculptures art began to change and be more like that in North America and Europe. Their dressing also changed and become more like that used in America and Europe. They adopted the philosophies and way of thinking that was used by some of the best philosophers at that time in America and Europe especially in France. Their food was also a combination of the two cultures adopted by the people (Close).
Simon Bolivar how did he shape the political independence of Latin America
Simon Bolivar was among the most influential people in Latin America who fought hard for their independence from the Spanish empire. Some of the Latin American countries that he was able to fight for their independence were Ecuador, Bolivia, Venezuela, Peru and Colombia. It is believed that there is a similarity between him and George Washington. The similarity between the two leaders were brought on by their passion and need to gain independence as well as the need to have democratic states. Most people believe that he brought about democracy to most countries in Latin America. The upbringing of Simon Bolivar since childhood was among the things that made him be what he was in life.
Simon was born in Caracas Venezuela by an elite family with the mother being called Dona Maria and father colonel Don Juan Vicente Bolivar. When he was, still a young child his parents left him under the care of don Aines Manceba de Miyares and their slave. This is one of the reasons why he fought so hard for the slaves and did all his best to stop slavery in Latin America (Arana). His parents were able to come back but they died when he was still a young boy. He was then left under the custody of Miguel José Sanz but their relationship never worked and thus he left for home. A black nurse named as Hipolita then looked after him. While growing up he was educated by some of the best educators at that time including Simon Rodriguez. He read philosophies from other nations such as Britain and France. The political ideology that he read from books is what he used in Latin America especially during the fight for independence when educating his people about their rights.
This enabled him to open his mind to the different ways people think about politics especially about democracy. He joined the military and thus he was able to learn ways to fight. This became very essential in the fight for independence. During the fight for independence, Simon moved from place to place in search of supplies that would help in fighting. He was also able to get the assistance of the blacks and the Indians. This people used guerrilla warfare tactics and thus became very handy for the fight of independence. This showed how he did not discriminate anyone because of the colour of their skin. The fact that he did not discriminate caused him to be liked by so many people who were once discriminated upon. This is why he pushed for all people to be treated equally. He proved to the people that he was a true leader when he fought until the end when the Spanish army finally surrendered in 1824 (Arana).
Gender played a central and contradictory role in the socio-politics of Latin America. Colonial notions of female honour remained largely unchanged after independence. Write an essay in which you discuss and explain these statements
Gender did play a central and contradicting role in socio-politics of Latin America especially after independence. During the fight for independence, the ones who usually went to fight were mostly the men but the women played very important role as the men’s rock by supporting their efforts. They ensured that the men were well fed and made their clothes. There are some women who got involved directly with the fight for independence for example Micaela Bastidas. She fought alongside her husband but unfortunately, they were unsuccessful (Lavrin).
Nevertheless, she is among the women that fought against stereotype and showed that women can participate in the fight directly. After the war, many Latin American countries gained their independence but the women were still being treated the same as when they were still being colonised. This is because when the constitutions were formulated they were not allowed to have any political rights or take part in any political events. They were not allowed to have any opinions in public on anything that they wanted or thought should be corrected. The women were supposed to be in their homes as housewives and take care of their husbands every need as well as look after their children.
Compare and contrast the population and social conditions in three Latin America/Caribbean countries
Colombia has a population of about 47.7 million people. Columbia has had different cultural influences due to the interaction it has with America as well as African, European, Caribbean, Spanish and other Latin American cultures. Most of the dances in Colombia have been influenced by African dances. Some of the most well known dances that originated from Colombia are salsa, bambuco and cumbia. The architecture and art has been influenced by Spanish and European cultures that settled in Colombia. The economy of Colombia is not that bad but there are many people who are poor. This is due to the high number of unemployment in the urban areas (Clayton).
The population of Peru has been increasing over the years since they gained independence. Currently it has been estimated that they are over 30 million people. Peru social conditions have been influenced by the interactions it has with people from different backgrounds such as the Americans, other Latin American people, Spanish, European and the indigenous people. Most art that has been done in Peru usually has been influenced by their religion. After independence, their art has been greatly influenced by other people’s cultures. The foods that the Peruvian people usually cook or eat are pachamanca, ceviche and anticuchos (Clayton). The mixture of the different cultures that exists in Peru has influenced the kind of food that has received praises from people from different countries. Most of the Peruvian traditional dances include diablada, marinera, huayno and tondera. Peru has done better compared to the other Latin American countries when it comes to economy.
The population of Argentina has also increased ever since they gained independence and is estimated to be over 41 million people. The social conditions in Argentina have been greatly influenced by the different people that are in the country. Its culture is a mixture of African, Spanish, Latino, European, American and the Native Americans. This kind of mixture can be seen through their arts, literature, architecture and music. The tango music, which exists in the country, is mixture of the cultures of African and European descent. The foods that most Argentineans eat or cook are empanadas humitas, locro and yerba mate. The women in the society have also evolved in that they no longer stay at home like the trophy wives. The economy of Argentina is not that good therefore, there are many people living in poverty (Clayton).
Arana, Marie. Bolivar: American Liberator. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013. Print
Bunson, Margaret. "The Church and the Native Americans." The Catholic Church Magazine (2011). Print
Bushnell, David. The Santander Regime in Gran Colombia. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1970. Print
Chasteen, John Charles. Americanos: Latin America's Struggle for Independence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print
Clayton, Lawrence A. and Michael L. Conniff. A History of Modern Latin America. Wadsworth, 2004. Print
Close, David. Latin American Politics: An Introduction. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009. Print
Lavrin, asuncion. "Women, The Family and Social Change in Latin America." Academia edu (2005). Print
MacCulloch, Diarmaid. The Reformation: A History. New York: Penguin Books, 2004. Print
Prevost, Harry E. and Vanden Gary. Politics of Latin America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print
Wells, Allen. Latin America During the Cold War. 2012. <http://resources.primarysource.org/content.php?pid=86804&sid=645699>. Web