The article revolves around hypothesis that tattoos are common among men while body piercing is common among women. Also, among young people, body piercing comes before tattooing.
The dependent variables of the research were people with tattoo and people with pierced bodies.
The independent variables were gender, place of birth, level of education, parent’s education level, number of ornaments, results in school, and age at first piercing or tattooing.
Based on the gender of the individual involved in the research as a sample a question was asked to define the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable in the definition of the hypothesis of the paper. Each of the independent variable had to indicate its significance in the dependent variables.
The sample was made of 968 people with 476 and 492 having pierced bodies and permanent tattoos respectively. It was collected from Lodz a city in Poland.
A questionnaire was prepared and administered by doctors in public places in Lodz. Different people were required to fill them.
A statistical analysis was to be carried out by the researchers based on the research findings.
The data that was collected entailed the body piercing age, level of education, factors that influenced them, their level of education at the moment, and parents’ level of education.
The P-value table was used as the most outstanding tool of statistical analysis. This is useful in defining the significance level of certain findings in a research.
Also, correlation analysis has been conducted.
Also, graphs were used to show the influence of independent variables on the depend variables.
Questionnaire tables were also evident in the research as they were used to indicate the different answers that were given for different questions involved in the research.
The statistical tools succeed in giving reliable findings, which can be used in definition of the ascribed hypothesis.
The findings of the research indicate that the hypothesis of the research was true. Tattooing is more common among men and women and it was found as the roaming finding of the study. The other element that was astonishing in the finds is that the age of piercing and tattooing was directly linked to the number of individuals who engaged in any of the activities.
The limitation that may be ascribed to this research was existence of different cultural practices in the society. Culture may be an influential element in the definition of tattooing or body piercing.
The study has had extensive investment on analysis on the best questions to be involved in the study. The researchers have recognized the need for research questions to help in explaining the hypothesis of the study. All the questions involved in the study revolve around the dependent variables as excellent definitions of the independent variables.
Also, the questionnaire went overboard where questions were asked outside the defined dependent variables. The questionnaire has been set to involve the opinion of the public on tattooing and body piercing practices. The research questions reveal that most people who have had pierced bodies or tattoos on their body believe that the public is happy of their actions. They argue that the public finds them as people with unique traits that make them outstanding in the society. The article indicates “Additionally, questions regarding motivation for body ornamentation were asked: if body Ornamentation helps in self-determination; proves that you are brave; attracts other people’s attention; increases self-esteem; increases your sexual attractiveness; adapts you to your group of friends” (Sitek et al, 2010).
Also, the researchers succeed in evaluating similar findings from other authors. The different researchers indicated as references by the author are useful in defining the significance of the argument that this article tries to affirm through the defined hypothesis. The references used are detailed and well versed with the required information for this article. They have previous analysis of body piercing and tattooing and their support for the stated hypothesis. They are also essential on affirming the significance or the important of the independent variables used as the definitions or determinants of the behavior of the dependent variable.
The research was built in an exclusively unique and reliable sampling technique. While carrying out sampling, it is usually fundamental to consider some elements that may be referred to as critical. The first element is the size of the sample. An extremely too large sample has its negative elements like the case of an extremely small sample. The 968 people selected as the representatives of the rest of the population are enough. It is a number that has balanced the number of individuals with pierced bodies as well as individuals with tattooed bodies (Sitek et al, 2010).This is significant in the sense that it would assist in accurate definition of factors that may be relevant for carrying out research to test the hypothesis of the study.
The place where the sample has been taken is equally fundamental. This defines the ability to engage all necessary factors for excellent analysis of given data. In this case, the sample has been drawn from a city. It had been identified that culture would be a major determinant of the findings of a study. However, this has been taken care of since in the Lodz city there people of different cultures from Poland as well as foreign countries.
Also, the sample does not involve people only from the same occupations. Different fields of work will accept different forms of behavior. Therefore, selecting people from different walks of life is accurate definition of the desired significance of body piercing and tattooing in the society (Sitek et al, 2010).
Also, the questionnaire used succeeds in engaging all dependent variables in analysis with the independent variables to define the hypothesis of the paper. The questions are closed, as well as open (Sitek et al, 2010). They leave an adequate room for analysis as well as discussion in the bid to bring their meaning to the researcher in the process of affirming the hypothesis that has been defined in the study.
The results of any study are heavily influenced by the research methods that are used. Sampling and interviewing through questionnaires are among the most common methods of research. They are well known for their use in high profile forms of research, as well as their influence in the various forms of research they have been used. They are free from extreme errors that may make research findings unreliable (Sitek et al, 2010). Through, this study they may still be confirmed as true and reliable research methods.
In such a study where there are more than two variables, correlation analysis is extremely fundamental. This refers to a process where one variable is determined on the extent to which it related to another variable. This is usually the case between independent variables and dependent variables. This technique is evident in the study and necessary facts have been proven where certain factors such as age or piercing among different people shows rates of body piercing, and tattooing at given times (Sitek et al, 2010).
The test of significance level of the findings through P-value table is equally fundamental in affirming the results of the study. In most cases, researchers or scholars try to define a given level of confidence as a formula or strategy to define the reliability of a given data. Depending on the significance level defined by the P-value, it is extremely easy to tell the reliability of a given piece of statistics.
This is the section that defines the validity of the results of the study. The researchers came up with extremely useful arguments and findings that are relevant to the hypothesis (Sitek et al, 2010). The questions that had been framed to answer or define the hypothesis have been brought out clearly and are fundamental in coming up with a conclusion.
The questions have succeeded in bringing forth argument that coin around the hypothesis. This is indicated through the answers that were given on the different questions that had been cited in the research. The questions show that there is direct relationship between age, gender, level of education, parents’ education, and place of birth and the behaviors of body piercing, and tattooing (Sitek et al, 2010). This acts as the direct answer to the hypothesis that has been set to be confirmed in this study.
It is true that the study has been engulfed by the some challenges with the main factor being lack of adequate spread of the study among wide range of cultures in Poland. However, this could have been solved through use of a more reliable sampling technique that could gather samples from different cities of Poland where different people of different cultures could have been involved in the study. Also, the sample was not significantly representative of population of Poland.
Sitek, A., Kruk-Jeromin, J., Kasielska, A., Antoszewski, B., & Fijalkowska, M. (2010). Tattooing and Body Piercing - What Motivates You To Do It?.International Journal of Social Psychiatry,56(65), 471-479.