Under the supervision of
- DECLARATION OF AUTHENTICITY
Training and development is involved with activities carried by an organization that are focused on improving the performance of employees. Training and development falls under the human resource department of any organization. These training and development activities include educational programs such as mentorship programs, training, coaching and workshops. They help to motivate and inspire employees and to bring the best out of them. Training and development have for long been understood to be only focused on looking developing new ways of production and improving service provision but not thought of as means to improving employees attachment to the organization. Most organizations have used this tool to improve their ways of doing things but have failed to perceive it as an important tool for increasing the employees’ attachment to the organization. HR professionals gauge the success of an organization on its ability to attract, recruit and retain trained, qualified and skilled personnel. Moreover, the business objectives and strategies into action can only be realized through proper coordination of the organization’s workforce. Every business organization is determined to have committed workforce that can work tirelessly to the needs of the organization. The challenge, however, lies in the difficulty involved in understanding the potential factors that determine the commitment level of the organization.In other words, every business organization; big or small in size needs to have a workforce consisting of trained and experienced personnel who are committed and dedicated to thegoals of the organization. Therefore, the topic of employees’ commitment in an organization has remained an area of focus for most scholars. Perhaps, the interests are based on the fact that organizations derive a lot of advantages from committed workforce. As such, the commitment of the employees is very significant in understanding the performance of an organization. The aim of this research is to determine the correlation betweentraining & development and commitment among the employees.
1.1 Description of the Problem
The research in question seeks to determine the relationship between training & development and employees’ commitment to an organization. Commitment to an organization among the employees is influenced by a number of factors. Some of the factors include compensation levels and benefits packages offered by the organization, performance appraisal and other human-related factors.Various studies have shown that there is a direct relationship betweentraining & development and commitment level among the employees’ in an organization. Training & development is a new area of consideration that needs to be researched on. This research builds on the already existing studies in Human Resource Management on factors influencing commitment among the employees.. Hence, this study aims at testing the following hypothesis.
Training & Development can increase employee commitment towards the organization which in turn enhances organizational effectiveness.
In order to confirm the hypothesis of this research, the study seeks to answer the following main question:
Does training & development influence employees’ commitment in an organization? If so, what role does it play and how does it affect training and development?
According to a study by Graham & Nafukho (2010) and that carried out by Knippenberg&Sleebos (2006), withdrawal, absenteeism, job performance and extra-role performance in an organization are elements of commitment in organization. It is, therefore, prudent that a study on the link between training & development and these elements will help understand the level of commitment as influenced by training and development.
1.2 How the Project will solvethe Problem
It is important to underscore the fact that different studies have been done in this area of research. Various scholars have been able to study the factors influencing employees’ commitment to an organization. According to Dyah Sawitri (2014), most organizations for a long time made the focus of training & development department to be centered on products. Most organizations established training & development departments to help find new ways of producing goods and services in the organization. The thought to utilize trainings and development to improve the commitment to the organization was not developed. Moreover, most organizations also used the program as a means of improving service to the consumers but never saw it a way of improving the commitment level of the employees to the organization. Therefore, this study seeks to create a paradigm shift on the understanding of training & development and how its influences employees’ commitment.
For purposes of this research, both secondary and primary (qualitative and quantitative) approach will be used.This choice is based on the belief that a combination of qualitative and quantitativeapproach will provide sufficient information for a detailed understating of how training and development programs influence the level of commitment in an organization. Qualitative research particularly will be very useful in answering the questions on “Why and How”Such questions require deeper understanding and reasoning that may not be addressed by quantitative research.
Quantitative research on the other hand will be important in providing statistical data that require numerical. Just such questions need high number of respondents who will generate quantitative data that can be analyzed to gauge the perception of the program by the employees. Secondary research is significant in providing a framework for this research based on already existing works related to training and development as a means to enhancing organizational commitment among the employees.
Although studies have been done on factors influencing organizational commitment among the employees, gaps still exist in this area of research. For instance, studies such that of Fornes (2008) have not given close attention to the area of training and development as a potential factor influencing employees’ level of commitment.
The main objective of the research is to determine the relationship between training & development and employees’ commitment to an organization. Performance among the employees is one of the elements that determine the level of commitment in an organization. It worth mentioning that performing employees are usually more attached to the organization than non-performing ones. Therefore, if the study reveals that performance can be enhanced through training& development programs, then it is possible to deduce that the same can increase the level of commitment in an organization
As mentioned earlier in the discourse, commitment is inward and only manifested in the way the employees react towards roles andperformance. Therefore, these aspects under study will help in determining the relationship between training & development and commitment.
1.3 Specific Expected Outcomes
The following are the anticipated outcomes of the proposed study:
- Training and development programs enhance the performance of the employees in an organization subsequently increasing the level of commitment. In light of the study by Fornes, Rocco & Wollard (2008), performance is inextricably associated with commitment. Offering training and development programs to the employees help in improving their skills that leads to desirable performance. Consequently, the commitment level increases.
- Through training and development programs, employees develop a willing attitude towards extra-roles in the organization and consequently develop commitment towards the organization.
- Training will reduce withdrawal among employees. Potentially, withdrawal may be due to incompetence and mismatch in skills. Training can help address this gap and boost their self-confidence in the organization leading to commitment.
- Absenteeism in an organization can be reduced through training and development programs. Through training, the performance and self-esteem of the employees can be boosted. Training can help the employees to acquire better ways of managing repetitive tasks in the organization without becoming bored.
- Training and development programs equip employees with effective communication skills. The skills developed enhance coordination, cooperation and teamwork spirit that enhance commitment.
1.4 Initial Assumptions made about the Project
The research intends to assume that the training and development of employees will improve their productivity and efficiency. This assumption is based on the notion that training and development programs are essential in equipping the employees with new ways of doing things for the betterment of the organization. This research accepts that training and development boosts performance among employees in an organization and this improves their efficiency and output. Through training and development, employees are able to acquire sufficient expertise in their fields of operation, hence boosting their moral when undertaking their duties within the organization.
The second assumption is that training and development will enhance the commitmentlevels, which will in turntranslate to achieving the ultimate goal of the organization.This aspect helps to increase their productivity within their areas of specialization.Training and development is believed to inculcate a willing and readiness necessary in achieving the development agenda of the organization entirely. Employees who have a higher organizational commitment tend to apply more effort in their course of duty assisting the organization in meeting their targets. These assumptions lay the foundations upon which this research is conducted.
- LITERATURE REVIEW
Training is an organized method of modifying employee behavior, in a way that enhances the current or future performance so as to accomplish the organizational goals. It is usually associated with the present work skills and abilities. Training also enables the employees to master these skills and abilities in order achieve career success.
1.1 Purpose of Training Programs
1.2 Phases in Training and Development Process
Need Assessment Phase: This phase helps figure out the kind of training that is necessary at a particular point of time. It consists of:
Organizational Analysis- This involves inspection of the organization’s mission, goals and resources.
Person Analysis- This is associated with finding out the staffs who require training as well as their willingness for training. Certain methods that can used to discover the employees’ requirement for training are observing the employees, listening to the employees, asking the respective supervisors regarding the needs of the employees and examining the various issues faced by the employees.
Instructional Objectives: In this step, a decision is made regarding the content of the training program. This includes tasks and activities such as on-the-job training, computer-assisted learning etc.
Validation Phase: Here the flaws and demerits of the training program is detected by testing it on a small group of the target employees. This is an optional phase.
Implementing Phase: In this fourth phase the training program is actually presented to the target group of employees (Dessler G, 2003).
Monitoring and Evaluating Phase: If the above steps are conducted carefully, the training program can be monitored and evaluated well, in order to determine whether the goals of the programs have been achieved or not. Some of the goals of the goals of the training program include:
Checking for Training Validity, in which the aim is to find out if the trainees have gained more knowledge and skills from the program.
Checking for Transfer Validity, where the goal is to find out whether the knowledge and skills obtained from the training program has improved job performance.
Checking for Intra Organizational Validity, where the purpose is to check if the job performance of a new trainee group of the organization that developed the program is comparable to the performance of the previous groups.
Checking for Inter Organizational Validity, where in the goal is to find out if the training program that has been successfully used in a particular organization will be successful in another one too (Ivancevich, J. M., 2010).
1.3 Types of Training Techniques Used
On-The-Job-Training: This is one of the most commonly adopted training program as it is found to be more relevant and can be easily transferred to the job. More than 60 percent of training takes place on the job. Here the employees are taught the job and the work characteristics by the supervisors or other experienced personnel while engaging in actual work situations. One of the methods of on job training is ‘job instruction training system (JIT)’ where the supervisors are first trained and they then train the target group.
Some of the common on job training techniques used for managers are;
Coaching and Counseling: In this process new managers are given coaching under experienced and efficient mangers. The trainer managers act as role models and should make sure that the trainees learn to do the right things in the right manner.
Transitory Anticipatory Experiences: This kind of training is given to people who are anticipated to be promoted. The employees are made to learn and get associated with the new job while still performing most of the current work.
Transfers and Rotation: Here the trainees are transferred and rotated through a sequence of jobs so as to expand their knowledge and experience.
Off-The-Job-Training: This method is usually used for very big training program. It is found to be useful for specific objectives like knowledge of employees. Some of the commonly used off job training schemes are;
Computer Assisted Instruction: This technique, which uses the Internet and the intranet, is becoming a very common method due to flexibility reasons. It enables the trainees to learn at their own pace as well as focus on subjects and materials that they feel needs improvement (Ivancevich, J. M., 2010).
Programmed Instruction: It is a step-by-step self-learning technique. Here the trainee is presented with questions, allowed to respond and immediate feedback is provided. Like CAI this method also allows the trainee to learn at his own pace (Dessler G., 2003).
2. Organizational Commitment (Continuance Commitment)
One of the objectives of human resource management is to enhance commitment level of employees purposefully to reduce employee turnover. This in turn contributes to the overall effectiveness and performance of an organization.
Organizational commitment may be defined as the level of employees’ identification with as well as involvement in their organization. The affective component of commitment, which is the focus in this study, relates to the likelihood that an employee will continue to work with company because of an emotional attachment with the same. A worker who has high emotional attachment to the organization tends to identify strongly with its goals. He stays with the organization because he wants to do so.
The antecedents for affective commitment include the job characteristics such as task autonomy, task significance, task identity and skill variety and feedback; organizational dependability which is the extent to which the employees can depend on the organization to protect their interests and participatory management which the level to which the employees are allowed to participate in the decision making process.
The results of organizational commitment are reduction in absenteeism and employee turnover and increase in organizational citizenship behavior and job performance (Peter, I. A, & Eunice, A. E, 2014).
According to previous studies carefully planned training programs can reduce work errors and improve the effectiveness. This may result in job satisfaction and willingness to stay in a particularorganization (commitment) (Lin, Y., Chen, S., & Chuang, H. 2011).
Earlier researches also shows evidence that training and development, which enables upgrading of knowledge and skills can lead to greater levels of employee commitment and a sense of belongingness. Training also brings about an enhanced level of commitment as continuous updating of one’s knowledge and learning new skills is also a source of intrinsic motivation (Peter, I. A. & Eunice, A. E. (2014).
3. The Development in the Organizational Environment
The consistent alterations in the global markets are the results of evolutionary growth in the organizational environment. The development managers and other professionals in the organization are in direct affect of the alterations such as competition due to the advanced inclusion of technologies in the marketplace or productivity fluctuations etc. The development cannot bring evolution unless the level of operation is higher and involvement of high officials is required for the successful execution of strategies for development across the entire unit of the organization. The techniques used for the development are widespread among the professionals for accomplishing the organization’s set of objectives. The modification in the strategies include i-learning among the professionals and teamwork implementation for Quality of Products (QoP) management in the entire organization. The management of development across the organization needs leadership quality in the organization to be efficiently framed.
The management in the organization is well organized if there is any existence of objective setting process in the organization. The objectives and intentions of the organization should be crafted around the intellectual bars of objective evaluation process. The main attribute components of objective-setting are improved in the organization for specificity or preciseness in the objective framed. The difficulty component sought the performance after evaluation and the concentration component for achieving the objective touched .
4. Evaluating the Performance of the Organization
Previous researches on goal setting have been studied analyzing the framing of objectives for higher economic benefits rather than using imprecise objectives within the organizational management areas. The evolution in the objectives of the organization relates to the choice of objectives which is fluctuated as per the performance of the organization. The specific objectives of the organization are to reach the goal without acquiring specific skill learning process. The best way to compensate is the inclusion of learning based objectives which enhances development, monitoring and evaluation of the set objectives without proper guidelines to the professionals. It is evidenced that the performance of the organization is lowered if the operations are visualized as risk rather than challenging. The focus of the organization should be to credit their efforts in developing management strategies. The progressed growth in effective objective implementation stands forth with the group goal setting. The enhancement in performance of the organization due to the sharing of information among the professionals provides better simulation management in the multifaceted structure of the organization. The group objective achieving strategy is effective if the objective goals of the organization are high so that the individual performance specificity is compensated through team efforts. The study (A.Locke & P.Latham, 2006) examined that the growth factor in the enterprises are based on three factors of social communicability, efficiency and ‘tunnel vision’. Thus, the growth is extended to the entire organization’s objectives which need the factors to mediate dysfunctional operations and setting up of ‘macro-level’ objectives. The conscious and intuitive goals of the macro-level objectives are made to conflict so that the speed and accuracy of the objectives can be enhanced. The sensible goals marked key effect than the intuitive goals and as observed in the figure (Fig.1) the growth in the organization is for the passionate professionals and the firmness of the goal-structure.
- Behavioral leadership
The behavioral modification of the professionals is very effective in directing the goals of the organization. There is no need for a constant focus regulation on the behavior of the actions as the sensible goals remain in the realization of the organization. The guiding understanding of the goals provides subsequent information for possible actions within the organizational environment. The integration of behavioral leadership variations with economic profits in the global business market leads to the enhanced performance among the organizational environment. The commitment of the organization professionals (Yousef, 2000) involves three modules of confidence in organization set goals, effective efforts and allegiance issues with the organization. .
The result of the studies inferred that the employees in the UAE’s organization are highly satisfied by their career heights and high performance efforts in the professional behavior lifts up the recognition of the part-taking behavior modification in the leadership quality of the professionals in the global organizations. Thus, the behavior modification changes the management to an innovative and part-taking headship conduct for higher performance in the economics of the organization.
- The Impact of the Modification on the organization behavior
There has been a high evaluation of the operant conditioning which is studied to influence the behavior of the organization. The strengthening of the organization is an important evaluation from the operant conditioning studies which enhances the use of such behavior for the modification to take place. The modifications may result in some dreadful consequences which recommends to not to repeat in the organization process. The incorrect modifications in the behavior results in no consequences. The criticism of the behavioral modifications noticed in several studies pointed out the strengthening of the organizational professionals for their self-determination which the studies are continuously disregarding. The behavior stimulus induced in the organization gives response when the normal operational behavior of the organization is absent. As such, there is a requisite for operation conditioning which leads to the diverse leadership management around the organizational issues. The impact of operation conditioning is much over the employees of the organization which overheads the managers with a test of his capabilities under such conditions (J.Hughbank & C.Horn, 2013).
- Complexity of Development
The intellectual complexities in the organization model for development perspectives is required at higher level of operations which enhances the identification process of individual capabilities in heading the organization for further growth in international economics. The main development in the personality creation of the employees was the maintenance of the team-framework within the orgainzation through this recogition process. The team work involved in the organization frames the future for the organization with a precise leadership maintenance. The decision making process in the higer level of operation becomes very precise and even a minor discrepancy in the maintenance can possibly make it much more complex to hinder the solutions. Thus, the differing team management tactic at every level of the organization must be maintained for the knowledgeable development among the professionals in the organization (Lohiya, 2010). The decision making process of the job of the employees is intellctual which contributes to the increased growth in business performance of the organization. The development of the sub-group employees to provide them with an equivalent strategy for the reduction of overheads only affects the low-level employees of the organization. Team-building strategies are the collaborative efforts which are induced in the working of the organization to improve the work and achieving the set-goals efficiently. The understanding of the whole operation under the challenging conditions is the vision of the teamwork establishment in the organization to enhance the performing operations in the higher levels of the organization. The resulting trust and confidence in the organizational goals and ideologies of the employees recreate the organizational structure with performance leading to economic profits. The team management in the organizations of the UAE is based on the role pyramid. The pyramid actualizes the level of authority of controlling the development which the employee is offered. This muti-faceted arrangement for the employees displays uncertainty in the team management conviction. The diversion in the team management is an emerging problem in the international organizations which results in low productivity and less communication or collaboration as a result of competitive business marketplace. The management planning in the organizations of the UAE is well managed as the team building prospect in the organizational employee spreads and a clear understanding of the set-goals is achieved through constant team efforts. The demographics of the structure of the organization envisions the team management in the development of the initiatives of the work functioning in challenging situations. The recognized efforts and evalution of performance through such immense efforts boosts up the spirit of the professionals and helps the individuals in achieving their own set of objectives with efficiency in performance and ownership to manage such goals at higher level of operations in the organization .
Over a decade, Abu Dhabi has seen lots of infrastructural development, prosperity and growth in almost all the sectors, and for all this we should appraise the rulers, as they had framed such policies, which resulted in the overall development. They have worked very minutely upon the infrastructural standards, which has resulted in growth .
8.1 Abu Dhabi Municipality (ADM)
The Abu Dhabi Municipality was established in the year 1962, under the “Department of Abu Dhabi Municipality and Town Planning”. In the same year, an order was passed for setting up of the first municipal board for the city, for providing various services to the people and formulating proper plans for the development of the city, along with proper network of roads, providing maintenance services, lighting, sewerage, public markets and agricultural development. Later in the year 2005, in order to provide streamlined administration and delivering higher services to its customers, it was been decided by the officials to merge the Abu Dhabi Municipality, Al Ain Municipality, The Work Department and the Agricultural and Animal production department all into the Department of Municipalities and Agriculture. Further in the year 2007, the ruler and the President of UAE, ordered to establish The Department of Municipal Affairs to be the sole body to administer all the work and oversee the work of all the three municipalities, i.e. Abu Dhabi Municipality, Al Ain Municipality and Western Regional Municipality.
The Abu Dhabi Municipality, has always been working upon various developmental plans for the city and is aimed at providing the people with the latest and modern infrastructure, have been working on bridges, roads, drainage system, means of transportation etc. Along with the completion of these projects, it has been working upon achieving goals, which are set as per their developmental plan. Their main aim is to provide an ideal living to all their people, to provide comfort and luxury to its residents, solve their complaints on time and give them unmatched quality of living with all amenities .
8.2 Services Provided by ADM
The Municipality has been offering a large number of services to its people, such as commercial, residential and industrial property registration and documentation, and all other works related to property, various community services such as sports, cultural and recreational services, all kinds of public sanitation such as mortuary, veterinary and public health services, various roads and infrastructural services such as no objection services, traffic services, transportation services, permits and many more. The municipality has also offered various e services and mobile services, they had updated themselves well, and it has provided all kinds of comforts to its customers, and now for small works they do not need to come to the municipality, it can be done from the internet or their mobile phones. They also give equal importance to the customers, and always welcome their suggestions, complaints and ideas. All the complaints are being redressed on time and the team is ready to serve the people at all times. They have always been working honestly, to serve the people and fulfill all their wishes, so that everyone can lead a happy, comforting and luxurious life ahead .
8.3 Vision, Mission and Values
Vision: To become an efficient world - class municipal system, aiming at sustainable development and enhancing the quality of living for the people of Abu Dhabi.
Mission: They are always aimed at giving the best and customer centric municipal services, to the people and working and engaging them with partnering them.
Values: The municipality works on certain values such as customer service, responsibility, accountability and answerability towards them, developing the people, sharing knowledge, innovation, and creation and giving excellence.
The municipality always works considering these core values; they always aim at giving the best and world - class municipal services to its people. They have always been trying hard to process all the delays caused in serving the people, improving their service mechanism, resolving the complaints by the fast track mode, and providing just one face of the organization to its people, to get better experience from them. They are very flexibly serving the changing needs of the people and have also advanced with time. With time, the municipality is also doing partnership with various agencies, so that they can give their best services and help the people by solving their complaints.
They aims at seeing Abu Dhabi, as the world - class city and have been working hard for delivering all their set goals. The growth and development the city has achieved by far, is because of the plans and policies of the municipality and proper implementation of them. The municipality foresees a very bright future for the whole city and making Abu Dhabi as the most developed city amongst all.
The organization have been moving in the right direction in the way for their vision and are highly committed towards achieving their mission. The plans are made for a limited number of years, and then they are being reviewed, checked and modified accordingly. The municipality has much work to be undertaken, and for each they have a specific department, so that nothing goes wrong or out of control. Whenever the company needed any help or suggestion, they approached the best service provider and got the work done. So, we can say that the Municipality has been working hard for so many years and has achieved a lot, and with the same spirit they will keep on achieving more and more .
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
The research in question employs both secondary and primary research approaches to help in generating more reliable and conclusive findings. Primary research involved both qualitative and quantitative approaches that were used to generate numerical and qualitative information. Secondary research on the other hand became meaningful in providing a framework for this research based on already existing works in regards to training and development as a means to enhancing organizational commitment among the employees.This section of the report will illustrate the data collection methods, sampling and limitation.
- Data collection
This report includes both primary and secondary methods of data collection. Primary data collection was gathered via a questionnaire survey that was designed by the group members to measure the commitment of employees by the training and development programs provided by Abu Dhabi City Municipality, Municipal Service Sector. The questionnaire survey consisted of 21 questions, 6 demographic questions, 14 training and development questions and an additional comment question as a qualitative question to lead to the right recommendations. The results of the survey were collected and measured via SPSS program. This program helped illustrating the answers into tables and bar charts. The secondary data collection was gathered through deep search of books, articles and journals via Abu Dhabi University Databases, which is basically previous papers and reports about the same topic written by different authors.
Based on thesize sample calculator from "www.surveysystem.com", the size of the sample was chosen as 40 employees. The population was 600 employees, the Confidante Level was 95% and the Confidence Interval was 15. The survey was conducted on the 23ed of June, in Abu Dhabi Municipality Main Branch, and the 40 employees were chosen randomly from different departments within the municipal service sector to reflect the overall population.
There is several limitation of this study such as a following;
(1) A Time limitationis a major issue of this research. This study was done only in three weeks’ time which needs a big effort in collecting a data and analyzing these data.
(2) The lack of significant statistical tests(correlation, confidence-level), which help to understand the relationship between different variables of the questions.
(3) Internal validity is other limitation in this research. Certain factors such as lack of time, interest, dishonesty,lack of effort to understand the questionnaire properly etc. on part of the respondents due to their busy schedule;have also affected the internal validity of the research.
(4) External validity is yet another limitation. The results obtained cannot be generalized, as the study was conducted using a small sample size and also in only 1 type of a Government organization.
(5) Many questions had neutral or unsure and the percentage as an answer of that was quite high, which was a challenge in the analysis where we couldn’t get a proper answer to analyze and interrupt.
- ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
The first bar chart describes the general question which talking about the classification of gender respondents. Most of respondents are male which around 57% while the female respondents were 17%.
The age of responds is shown in the above chart. However the classifications of ages are divided into three groups 20 to 30, 30 to 40 and Above 40. The majority of respondents are between 30 and 40 which was 45% and the following group fell under the age group 20 to 30 which made up for 40% of respondents. The percentage of the last group who are above 40 was only 15% of total respondents.
Based to the above graph, the respondents are classified according to their citizenship (Local and non-local). The highest percentages of respondents are local which has shown more than 65% of respondents while the other 32% are non-local.
This bar graph classified the respondents with their period of work experience in the organization. They have been divided into several groups; below5 years, 5 to 10 years, 10 to 15 and above 15 years of work experience. The majority were between below 5 years and 5 to 10 years which are more than 30% of respondents. The following group who are between 10 to years of work experience was around 20% while the less percentage are for respondents who have above 15 years of work experience.
The respondents also categorized according to their job level. This questioner was shown that most of respondents are employees which were more than 50%. While the middle management level that respond to this survey was 20%. The following was the supervisor level who was 15% of respondents. Senior management respondents were the lowest percentage of this study.
The above table shows the material statues level. However the majority of respondents are married which were more than 70%. The employees who are a single were shown around 20% of total respondents and only 5% divorced respondents.
There are several question based on training and development programs in the organization. This question as it shown above is talking about whether the company provides wide range of various training programs. The most responses that showed more than 50% agree. Followed by employee who are strongly agree that was more that 10%, while people who are not sure or disagree showed same percentages which was around 15%. The lowest average score was shown for who are strongly disagreeing with this question.
This graph is representing the answers of the question which says that ‘I have been given the opportunity to be trained under a mentor’. The majority 47% are agree. However, 20% of respondents who are disagree and unsure. 10% of employee who are strongly disagree that they give the opportunity to be trained under a mentor.
The question of whether the training of any employee should be after 6 months of employment has been answered. The most respondents 35% agree with this , while second majority 30% are not sure whether any employee should be trained after 6 months of employment or not. The percentages for who are strongly agreed were more than 15% of total respondents. However, around 8% of respondents who disagreed and strongly disagreed.
This graph indicates the responses of level of agreement if all employees have an equal opportunity for training courses. More than 40% are agree and strongly agree that employees have an equal opportunity for training courses. However, 25% of respondents who are unsure for this kind of question. Fewer than 20% of respondents who are disagree and also disagree.
According to the graph #. Most of responds 38% were agree that training provided is beneficial to the job and 28% feeling unsure if the training is benefits or not. This mean they are neither agree or disagree. Whereas 20% of respondents are disagree.
Based on this graph, it can be observed responses of employees who showed different agreement level whether the training employees receive can be easily implemented in the work or not. The total numbers of respondents are agreeing and strongly agree showed the highest percentage which was more than 50%. On the other hand, around 20% was answered as they are unsure if the training can be implanted in the job or not. Employees who are disagreeing and strongly disagree were almost 25% of total respondents.
This graph showed the percentages of employees who feel that the training develops new knowledge and skills. The majority respondents more than 50% are agree with the feeling that training develops their knowledge and skills. The second highest figures were who are strongly agree and employees who are unsure. The parentage for both groups was similar 18%. Only few respondents who showed strongly disagree and disagree. The sum of their percentages was less than 15%.
According to the above graph, employees who are aware of the skills and expertise that required by the company for the next 5 years. 35% of respondents are aware of that. Followed by respondents who answered as they are unsure or they neither agree nor disagree are 27% whereas employees who don’t aware about the skills and expertise that required by the company for the next 5 years and so they answered as strongly disagree and disagree were 30% in total.
According to the above graph, the answers of the questionnaire which asking about whether the employees well aware of the career development opportunities available to them at their organization or not. However, it seems that most of respondents didn’t understand well or they really unsure to this question and so they showed the highest percentages 35%. On the other hand, many of employees 33% are totally aware of the career development opportunities available to them and 8% of them are strongly agree. The lowest responses were for employees who disagreed and strongly disagreed, 13% for both groups.
This graph illustrates the numbers of responses according to the whether the company supports taking initiatives regarding employee’s career development or not. Most of employees 38% answered as they are agreeing to this question. On the other side, 33% of employees said they are disagreeing of this question. While 18% neither agree nor disagree, this mean that they don’t have enough knowledge if the company supports taking initiatives regarding employee’s career development or not.
Based on the above graph, there are a varying in responses of question that says ‘My supervisor makes an effort to analyze my strength and weakness’. The highest percentage of respondents 58% agrees to this question. Followed by those who answered as unsure 25% of whether supervisor makes an effort to analyze their strength and weaknesses. While, only 12% in total who are disagree and strongly disagree.
This bar graph clarified the percentage of respondents who believe that Participating in the training and development programs offered by the company increase their commitment towards it. Employees who agree were the majority of total response percentages 42% and 15% for who are strongly agree, while employees who are unsure were around 23%. On the other side some respondents18% replies as disagree with this question and only 3% strongly disagreed.
Employee’s responses who believe that they have access to resources other than managers within the organization for career advice showed in the above graph. Majority of the employees (38%) agree to this question and 5% strongly agree. Respondents who are unsure were presented as 25%. Only 20% ofemployeesdisagree that they have access to resources other than managers within the organization for career advice and 13% are strongly disagree.
Employee percentages that are in general are satisfied with the career development and training opportunities provided by the company are showed in this bar graph. Most of them (33%) are agree and satisfied and 8% are strongly agree. While some of them (25%) are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied and they filled the question as unsure. However, 23% of respondents showed that they are strongly disagree to the career development and training opportunities provided by the company and 13% are disagree.
- CONCLUSION AND RECOMANDATIONS
This research was carried out to test the hypothesis; ‘Training and development enhances the commitment of the employees at work place.’ In order to do so, qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of the relevant materials were conducted.
In the qualitative analysis section of the study, detailed investigation of previous literature sources were done, in order to gather information on related topics such as; what in training and development, what role does it play in organizational effectiveness and also if it has any significant impact on organizational commitment.’ Careful analysis of the information gathered from the literature reviews indicate that the hypothesis ‘Training and development enhances the commitment of the employees at work place’, is correct.
Alongside the qualitative analysis, a quantitative study was also done using survey questionnaires, which were distributed to the employees of the ‘Abu Dhabi Municipality.’ The results were subsequently analyzed using SPSS software. Important information regarding the training and development programs offered by the Municipality and also the employees’ views and reactions to these programs were gathered.
More than 50 percent of the surveyed employee population agreed that the training and development programs offered by the organization had training validity. A little more than 50 percent also agreed that the programs offered had transfer validity. Most importantly, 57 percent of the people had the impression that training and development had a positive impact on work place commitment of the employees.
Hence the qualitative and quantitative studies that were carried out in this research supported the hypothesis; ‘Training and development enhances the commitment of the employees at work place.’
Stated below are certain suggestions which may enhance the effective commitment of employees, using improved and well developed training and development programs.
Training programs must be designed in a way that it can be connected to the antecedents of affective commitment. Training programs must also be able to motivate the employees. This is because motivated employees learn better and can acquire skills faster. These acquired skills and knowledge, when applied to the job, leads to career success which in turn leads to satisfaction and commitment. Organizations must also provide a variety of training opportunities and access to these opportunities. Supervisors could make an effort to analyze the strength and weaknesses of their employees and consequently provide necessary support and encouragement towards the training programs.
Some of the views and suggestions of the managerial level employees of Abu Dhabi Municipality, regarding the training programs are as follows.
Most of them recommend that there should be good orientation and training programs for new employees and expatriates. This is because Abu Dhabi Municipality provides training programs only after six months. There were also suggestions that the training tools and materials should be improved, well developed and relevant to the job. Some of them have also suggested that there should be an improved awareness regarding the training programs, as not all employees are aware of the training options and policies. A few of them have also proposed that the organization provides them with better career development plans and opportunities in order to enhance commitment towards the organization.
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Masters Student requests your help. Please complete the following Training and Devlopment Survey and thank you for your time.
A. Sample Demographics
- Gender is Female Male
- Age is Below 20 20 to 30 30 to 40 Above 40
- Citizenship:Local (UAE) Non-Local (Foreigner)
- Work experience with this organization: Below 5 5 to 10 10 to 15 Above 15
- My job level:
Senior Management Middle Management Supervisory level Employee
- Marital status:
Single Married Divorced Widowed
B. Self-Assessment: Training and Development
For each statement, think of the Training and Development provided by the Company. Choose a number from 1 to 5 to indicate the extent to which the statement describes your point of view. "1" indicates "Strongly Disagree" and "5" indicates "Strongly Agree".
C. Additional Comments
Thank you very much for taking the time to complete this survey. Your feedback is valued and very much appreciated.