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PLEASE NOTE: SECTIONS HIGHLIGHTED IN THIS COLOUR ARE FOR TRAINER USE
Create a Quantitative question
Quantitative research measures the subject or item of study over a period of time and quantifies the event, occurrence or parameter (for example: profit, output, number of footfalls in a mall which were converted into sales in a particular period) . If the past history of a company is the subject of study: “what happened to the production?”, “What was the productivity of employees and other resources?” if the future is the subject of study: “what will happen to the output of the company and cost of raw materials and finished product?
Quantitative questions in a student satisfaction survey about campus facilities can be framed as:
What makes a firm more profitable than its competitors?
What makes a university more preferred than its peers within the same geographical location?
Find two sets of data:
5 years of data for the number of Indian students that had arrived in Australia
(Source was mentioned in the previous report)
5 years of data for the number of International students that had arrived in:
Source was mentioned in the previous report.
Using measures of central tendency demonstrate forecasting:
For both sets of data
Forecasting for two years from today
Analyzing the data, identify potential opportunities or threats to the market
Measures of central tendency namely mean and median for both sets of data are given in Table 3 and 4.
The UK had the highest enrolments of international students with its mean value 300,120, followed by Australia and Canada. The data was fairly consistent for Australia, while the dispersion was high for Canada with the lowest being 136,402 in 2009 and 181,830 in 2013- the range being 45,428; and for UK the lowest being 280,760 in 2009 and 310,915 in 2013- the range being 30,155. The trend for both UK and Canada is increasing over the years, while for Australia the international enrolments showed a decreasing trend from 2011 onwards.
1. Forecast Indian student numbers for 2 years.
Based on the data from 2009-2013 the forecast for 2014 and 2015 were made, using 3-year moving average method. Again forecast for two years from today (2015) are given in the Table 5 and 6. Data which was available in the public domain was for the period 2009-2013. Based on this data estimates (forecasts) were made for 2014 and 2015. Taking into account the 5-year data and the estimates for 2014 and 2015, the Indian student enrolments in Australian educational institutions are forecasted for the year 2016 and 2017 and presented in the Table 5. The forecasts were made using 3-year moving average method with the help of MS-excel.
Data which was available in the public domain was for the period 2009-2013. Based on this data estimates (forecasts) were made for 2014 and 2015. Taking into account the 5-year data and the estimates for 2014 and 2015, the international student enrolments in Australia, Canada and the UK are forecasted for the year 2016 and 2017 and presented in the Table 6.
A line graph representing the enrolments of Indian students in Australian, Canadian and the UK institutions is shown in Fig. 1. The graph clearly shows a decline in Indian student enrolments in Australia from 2009, touching the lowest point in 2012 and showing a small increment in 2013 (matching the number of 2011 enrolments). The estimates for 2014 and 2015 are not very promising.
4. Include a line graph representing international students
A line graph representing the enrolments of international students in Australia is shown in Fig. 2. The enrolment of Indian students steadily declined from 12 per cent (in 2009) to 7 per cent (in 2012) (as a proportion of the total international students) and the estimates for 2014 and 2015 also remain at the same level. Chinese students showed an upward trend from 35 per cent (in 2009) to 43 per cent –peak level in 2011 and later stabilizing in the range of 40-42 per cent.
A line graph representing the enrolments of international students in Canada is shown in Fig. 3. Top five countries sending their students to Canadian institutions are China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore. Chinese student enrolments show a steady increasing trend with a peak in 2013 (32% of international students), while others such as India, Indonesia and Singapore show more or less a stable trend. Malaysian students are on the decline in Canadian universities.
Line graph indicating enrolments of international students in the higher educational institutions of UK for the period 2009-2013 and the estimates for 2014 and 2015, is shown in Fig. 4. Top five countries (China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore) enrolments are shown individually, while number of enrolments from other countries are clubbed. Chinese enrolments are showing an increasing trend, while Malaysian students are on the decline. Number of Indian students has marginally increased in 2009-2010, but later stabilized at 9 – 10 per cent.
5. Include pie graphs of the international student mix
Pie graphs of international student mix (average number of enrolments over the 2009-2013 period) for Australia is shown in Fig. 5. Chinese students topped the mix with 40 per cent of students followed by Indians (8%) and Malaysians (7%).
Pie graphs of international student mix (average number of enrolments over the 2009-2013 period) for Canada is shown in Fig. 6. Even in Canada, the Chinese students topped the mix with 27 per cent, followed by Indians and Koreans at 11 per cent each. Compared to Australia, the Chinese enrolments dipped by 13 per cent, while the Indians increased by 3 per cent for the same time period in the Canadian educational institutions.
Pie graphs of international student mix (average number of enrolments over the 2009-2013) for UK is shown in Fig. 7. Even in UK, the Chinese students topped the mix with 26 per cent, followed by Indians at 9 per cent and Nigerians at 6 per cent. For the same period, the Indian students’ enrolments were the least in Australia, as compared to Canada and the UK.
Summary statistics and Conclusions from Data Analysis
Indian student enrolments in Australian universities dropped from 2009 onwards and the trend does not show any increasing pattern. Canadian universities attracted growing number of Indian students between 2008 and 2012. Enrolments of Indian students in the UK universities, though did not appreciate much, the trend was stable. Immigration rules, tuition fee, racial attacks and cost of living are some of the factors attributed to the decline in numbers. Growing number of Chinese students are flocking to international destinations for acquiring higher educational qualifications, in spite of not being fluent in English. International student enrolments in all the three countries have shown the increasing trend, with the percentage in the mix of students changing and new countries sending their students abroad to acquire higher qualifications.
6. Explain why there was a decline in Indian student numbers.
Safety is mentioned as one of the main concerns in choosing a foreign university
(Bodycott, 2009). A series of assaults against Indian students in Australia during 2008-2009 has generated doubts regarding the safety of foreign students (Shaw, 2014) and this has reflected in decline in enrollments. According to Ziguras (2012) violent assaults are not uncommon in Australia and the ethnicity of victims (Indians) in these incidents may have been coincidental, further men are more likely to get assaulted, and most Indian students in Australia tend to be male, in comparison to students from East and Southeast Asia with almost equal number of males and females. Further the influences and recommendations from family, friends and professors (Lee & Morrish, 2012) had a substantial effect on enrolments after the so-called ethnic assaults.
7. Explain why Australia/Canada/UK is independently favoured or not?
Australia offers 40 hours work permit per fortnight during studies (Diploma, Bachelor’s and Master’s programs). Work permits offered by Australia are of longer duration than the UK and the permanent residency requirements are less stringent. The tuition fees in Australian universities are lower than that in the USA and UK. At the same time the racial attacks in 2009 triggered decline in Indian student enrolments, though students from other countries enrolled in Australian universities. The damage and after-effects of sporadic incidents of assaults have to be contained in order to create a cosmopolitan image for attracting larger number of international students.
Canada is able to attract more number of students in tertiary education, as it has put in place employment-related policy provisions and new channel to permanent residency facilitating students’ long-term stay (She & Wotherspoon, 2013). Unlike some western countries, “many foreign college and university students who study in Canada gain credit towards becoming a permanent resident” (thestar.com, 2010). Further, for the 30 year period of international students in Canadian universities, events such as those happened in Australia in 2009, have reportedly not occurred as “Canada is just much more multicultural” (Macciavello, cited in thestar.com, 2010). Canada offers post-study work permit of longer duration (equivalent to the course duration up to two years; and for courses of longer duration the work permit is three years). According to Aurobindo Saxena (cited in immigration.ca, 2015), “reputation of education system in Canada and safety are two important factors that beckon Indian students to the country. The society is tolerant and non-discriminatory and summer jobs and opportunities after completion of study are available for foreign students”.
According to Rupa Chanda and Shahana Mukherjee (2012) the UK overtook Australia in 2009 to become the second-most important destination for Indian students (after the US, the UK attracted 17% of all Indian students studying abroad in 2009).On the one hand the UK, in cooperation with the British Council, conducts large scale education fairs every year in Indian cities to reach out to potential postgraduate aspirants, while on the other hand it tightens student visa system with the introduction of the Points Based System (PBS) in 2008. The UKBA stipulates that students should come to UK for study and not to work (BBC, 2012), though the decision has been revoked for PhD students completing their study in the UK as of April 6, 2013 (UKBA, 2013). Though the tuition fee in UK is higher than that in Australia and Canada, middle-aged families preferred destination for their children was UK. Geographic proximity of UK and Australia to India and other south Asian countries plays a beneficial role in selecting these countries for pursuing higher education.
Information about the universities, life in the campus and outside campus, ease of getting a job for few years (so as to repay the loans taken for financing foreign education) percolates faster into the student-aspirants worldwide..
Aurobindo Saxena (2015). A study by Technopak Advisors: “Indian students prefer Canada
over Australia for safety reasons” cited in www.immigration.ca/en/immigration-news-articles/2015/february/1219-indian-students-prefer-canada-over-australia-for-safety-reasons.html.
BBC (2012) Overseas students ‘cannot leave or stay’ in visa delays, News article,
Bodycott, P. (2009). Choosing a higher education study abroad destination- What mainland
Chinese parents and students rate as important. Journal of Research in International Education, 8 (3), 349-373.
Lee, C.K.C., & Morrish, S.C. (2012). Cultural values and higher education choices: Chinese
families, Australasian Marketing Journal , 20, 59-64.
Macciavello (2010) cited in thestar.com article “Indian students turn to Canada following
Australian backlash”. http://www.thestar.com/news/world/2010/12/12/indian_students_turn_to_canada_following_australian_backlash.html
Shahana Mukherjee & Rupa Chanda (2012). Student Mobility from India to selected
European countries- The case of Germany and France. Working Paper No. 378, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore.
She Qianru & Wotherspoon Terry (2013) International student mobility and highly skilled
migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. SpringerPlus, 2: 132. www.springerplus.com/content/2/1/132
Shaw Kelly (2014) Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future,
thestar.com (2010). Indian students turn to Canada following Australian backlash.
UKCOSA (2006) New Horizons: The Experiences of International Students in UK Further
Ziguras, C. (2012) Learning the hard way: lessons from Australia’s decade of innovation in
UKBA (2013). www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/newsarticles/2013/april/10-rules-april