Management and Leadership Development
Competitions among organizations are tight these days. The success or failure of the company’s market edge in the industry largely depends on the effectiveness of their respective management teams. Management effectiveness includes, but is not limited to, creativeness and the ability to think outside of the box. Resourcefulness and strategic skills are essential in determining ways to outsmart the competitors in today’s global industry. In this paper, readers would get to learn about the techniques and strategies to manage global organizations effectively. Readers will learn the competitors’ edge over one company in relation to management and leadership skills.
Management takes place within the premises of structured organisational setting with prescribed roles (Health Knowledge 2006). Management aims to achieve goals and objectives through pulling the efforts of cooperation contributed by other people (Health Knowledge 2006). Administration is different from management. Administration is concerned solely with organisation in the firms (Cole 2004). On the other hand, management involves the planning, controlling and motivating of staff (Cole 2004).
Management By Objectives (MBO) aim to improve employee performance through setting sets of clear goals and endeavours (Management By Objectives 2014). One of the most basic tasks of leadership and management is to lead by example (JD 2007). It is important to collaborate with employees to train them to be the best that they can be when performing their tasks (Myatt 2013).
Not all leaders have the skills to manage (Lunenburg 2011). At the same time, not all managers have the skills to lead (Lunenburg 2011). Leadership is about standing out from the crowd (Johnson 2014). Management is about coordinating bureaucratic systems of the firms (Johnson 2014). Leadership involves leading a group of people (Leadership Theories n.d.). Management refers to overlooking of certain components within the firm (e,.g. I.T., money, equipment, advertising, etc.) (Leadership Theories n.d.).
According to John Adair, “You can be appointed as a manager, but you are not a leader until people choose to follow you.” (Leadership Models and Theories 2014). Adaptability, aggressiveness, enthusiasm and self-confidence are the pertinent traits that leaders should possess (Leadership Models and Theories 2014). Emotional Quotients (EQ) traits such as empathy, graciousness, optimism and ability to read non-verbal cues are essential in the success of potential leaders (Rao 2011). Leaders typically handle higher levels of functions in the firms, while managers handle mundane tasks (Riggio 2009).
Leadership development differs in the private, public and not-for-profit sectors (Pinnington 2011). Leaders should be able to adjust their leading skills as changes arise for them to do so (Lussier & Achua 2009). The efficiency of leaders’ skills ultimately affect employee outputs (Warrick 1981).
Management and Leadership Theories
Effective leaders combine management styles, depending on the employees they are handling and the nature of work at the firm (Grace 2014). Transactional leadership refers to leadership based on rewards and punishment of employees, based on performance (Transactional Leadership 2013). Leader-member exchange theory refers to the perception of employees on the leadership skills of the supervisor within the firm (Miles 2007). The combination of role modelling and common sense make up basic leadership qualification requirements (Turner & Brown n.d.). Management theory bears the definition of a set of ideas set forth with the goal of structuring and organising the transactions and productions within the firms (Management Theory 2014).
The classical management theory emphasizes on structure (Health Knowledge 2006). The management of systems and entities based on this theory is organised within a hierarchy and category levels. The classical theory adheres to the prescription of “what is good for the firm” (Health Knowledge 2006). This theory believes that the management team may make decisions that would make lasting impacts on the functionality of the firm in the industry. Experts adhering to this theory believes that the management team has the specialist knowledge on the best roads that the firm should take in the industry to maximise success. Relationship theories believe that the relationships formed between leaders and followers subsequently affect productivity outputs (Freberg 2014).
Transactional leadership refers to the outcomes as directly related to organisation, management and group performances (Cherry 2014). 70 % of the employees are disengaged due to management theory that seemed to be ineffective (Andersen 2013). The resource-based theory states that the management team must put in efforts to search for resources to aid in the improvement of their managerial skills (Strategic Management Theories 2014). Transformational leadership refers to systematic management, having a goal of achieving results within the firm (Core Leadership Theories 2014). However, there are several critics suggesting that this type of leadership lack morality and ethical values (Razak 2012).
The systematic or the scientific management theory was the extensive study on how management processes work (Frederick Taylor 2014). The father or the founder of this management theory was Frederick Winslow Taylor (Frederick Taylor 2014). The management strategies and methodologies depend upon the cultures of the managers, employees, and the country where the organisation is located (Hofstede 1993). If managers and leaders are in influence by bad management theories, their good management practices will likely get negative effects (Ghoshal 2005). Human relations management theory is in referral to as Hawthorne Works Experiments (Human Relations Movement n.d.).
Human relations management theory are concerned on the human factors working relations within any firms (Health Knowledge 2006). The foci of human relations theory is on motivation, group motivation and leadership (Human Knowledge 2006). At the centre of these foci, are the assumptions of relationships between employers and employees (Human Knowledge 2006). Experts assume that the success of the management of the firm depends on positive employer-employee relationships. Experts argue that the management will ultimately not able to direct the employees of appropriate tasks to perform if they do not have positive relationships with them. As a result, when employees do not perform their duties appropriately, the production in the firm ceases to progress.
Chester Barnard (1938) defined leadership as follows: “the ability of a superior to influence the behaviour of subordinates and persuade them to follow a particular course of action (Leadership Theories and Styles 2009). Chester Barnard formulated the acceptance theory of authority in 1938 (Theories of Public Management n.d.). The earliest contributors of management theories were practising managers and social scientists (Sedrick 2013). The recent theorists of the management theories were academicians and management consultants (Sedrick 2013).
Different theories of leadership may be in application to various international contexts of management (Bush 2011). In other words, various leadership strategies may be in application to management processes in different countries. Peter Drucker was the founder of the management theory (Ostdick 2013). He formulated the organisational process of managing subordinate employees through the formulation of this theory (Ostdick 2013).
Management theories consist of the process improvements (Process Improvement 2013). Processes involved in the management production involves numerous changes to benefit the structure of the organisation. Advanced models are in construction for the improvement of management theories (Brant, Beck & Miaskowski 2010). Experts continuously improve the models in the management theories according to the nature of the current situation.
Six Sigma leadership theory refers to the reference of statistical information in order to reduce the defects in an employee’s work performance (Operations Management Tools n.d.). Sometimes, women leaders are in underestimation in their abilities in being able to be effective leaders (Feminist Management Theorists 2009). Men are often in thoughts of as having better leadership qualifications than women (Feminist Management Theorists 2009). The “Westernised” management style has been prevalent in Southeast Asian nations (Hunter 2012). Southeast Asian nations adapt the Westernised management style, as they have deemed it effective (Hunter 2012).
Neo-human relations theory focuses on motivation and leadership (Health Knowledge 2006).In this theory, particular attention is on hand for human motivation, in terms of satisfaction, incentive and intrinsic elements (Health Knowledge 2006). This theory believes that individuals are motivated to perform their best, per encouragement of the management, with the end goals of achieving self-fulfilment and rewards for the work they have accomplished.
The system theory combine the application of the above-mentioned theories in order to study effective management and leadership skills. The system theory seeks to study the effects that the combination of application of management skills and management of human behaviours and performances in the outcomes of management and leadership results in a firm. This theory is a complex system to study, as one factor in a theory can ultimately affect the results of the overall studies. Careful and keen attention to details are encouraged in their implementation in this regard.
As Kossoff (2005), puts it one of the main characteristics of a good leader is having the ability to speak up or talk aloud. It is important that leaders are not shy in letting their colleagues and subordinates know their opinions on major matters by speaking up. Leaders should not be afraid to disagree with their colleagues and subordinates, if they need to do so, for the benefits of the successful management of the firm. Leaders should not just go along with the rest of the other staff members, as they were afraid of being different. Leaders should be able to explain to their colleagues and subordinates the rationale and reasons behind the arguments they wished to make regarding certain insights and opinions.
Choosing to lead is a key characteristic of a leader and a manager in any organization (Adeniyi 2007). Leaders and managers should have their own initiatives of leading the firm’s growth and success. Without initiatives, leaders would not perform their tasks out of the willingness of their hearts. They will just feel forced to be a leader or a manager. Not doing something voluntarily causes the qualities of the performance of tasks to suffer. Employees do not perform at their best when they just feel forced to do something. Alternatively, leaders and managers must act on the duties described in their job descriptions. In other words, as leaders of the firms, they must not be shy and feel awkward to lead and manage their respective subordinates. They have been in connection with the firms to perform supervisory duties, thus, they should accordingly perform their duties at par standards. The contingency theory asserts that managers and leaders make decisions based on the current situation, rather than a “one size fits all” methodology application (Hawthorne 2014). The contingency theory of decision-making states that the decision leaders and managers make depend upon the nature and surrounding events occurring within a situation (Contingency Theories 2014).
There are numerous leadership styles and personalities, which vary, depending upon the individual leader (Adeniyi 2007). Authoritarian or autocratic style has a primary focus on task accomplishments, rather than relationships (Adeniyi 2007). This leadership style does not take into consideration the pertinence of building rapport with subordinates, with the end goal of achieving a harmonious working relationship.
Laissez-faire or the permissive style does not adhere to the authorities and decision- making processes of the leaders of the firms (Adeniyi 2007). The firms using this leadership style lack directions. In this leadership style, every staff member is free to make his/her own management decision, thus, more than likely, can result into chaos. This leadership style is not for adaptation recommendation.
Max Weber formulated the bureaucratic and charismatic leadership styles (Leadership Theories 2014). The bureaucratic style adheres to the management of firms based on a system of files (Adeniyi 2007). This leadership style is too organised (Adeniyi 2007). It is usually in use in the management of firms dealing with daily organizational complexities (Adeniyi 2007). The downside to this leadership style is that it is too formal and organised that any rapport between the leaders and their subordinates are not present within the relationships. Under this leadership style, leaders and their subordinates maintain strict professional relationships. If they violate this rule, the supervisory head staff members reprimand leaders and subordinates. Consequently, work becomes stressful and unenjoyable if this leadership style is utilised.
The charismatic leadership style bears the belief that charm and attraction that leaders possess compel their subordinates to respect and adhere to their leadership initiatives (Adeniyi 2007). Certain leaders bear the magnetism for others to agree and respect his decisions and insights. Many times, these leaders become the effective leaders the public come to know now today. These leaders are able to allow their subordinates to see situations the way they see them, after presenting some major points of arguments and judgments. Most leaders with charisma possess self-confidence. As a result, their faith in themselves causes others to place their faith in them as well.
The charismatic leadership style is also in referral to the “Great Man” theories (Cherry 2014). According to these theories, some people are just born to have the charisma, personalities and inclination to lead subordinates (Cherry 2014). The other term for charismatic and “Great Man” theories is/are the trait leadership theory (ies) (Leadership Theories n.d.). These theories bear similar nature and concept as the charismatic and “Great Man” theories.
Management Styles Organizational Impacts
The impacts of leadership are visible in the areas of employee contributions, organizational order, employee performance and the project manager’s performance (Kerzner 2009). If the employees give their best in the performances of their duties and responsibilities, that means that the management team or the leaders are able to appropriately direct and guide the employees. If there is an order in the managements of transactions and activities within a firm, the consumer experiences tend to be positive than negative. The successful production of services of the firm reflects the way the managers lead the outflow of the processes.
A good project manager encourages both positive and negative information’s free dissemination (Kerzner 2009). An effective project manager does not hide the negative information in relation to its products and services. They are well aware that consumers do understand that no firm is perfect, and that there are rooms for mistakes. An effective project maager is well aware that a policy needs development, and accepts constructive criticisms (Kerzner 2009).
Effective project managers develop procedures and measurements in implementing the production processes of products and services (Kerzner 2009). Competent project managers are fully aware which production processes would yield the best services that the firms can offer. If employees are able to produce high quality works quickly and efficiently, consumers and experts know that, the leaders or the management team has implemented the most effective training programs within the firms. Consumers and experts know that the employees follow the examples of the management, and look up to it as a role model.
Foundations of Managing Employees
The forefront elements in managing employees are learning and training (McCourt 2003). Employees learn the ropes of performing their duties and responsibilities within the premises of the firms through the basic knowledge and practical skill application gained from training. The capabilities of senior management teams come into question, as the complexities in the workplace become apparent (Jeffcutt 2004). As the tasks in the workplace becomes more difficult, the tolerance for stress and demanding work rises. This produces the need to stretch the management’s abilities to higher levels.
The most critical component in management and leadership appraisal is gaining commitment from the managers and leaders (Innovative Approaches 2004). Managers and leaders sometimes lack commitments in sticking to giving their best performances in their jobs. Fickle-mindedness of leaders can crumble the organizational structures of the firms.
The managers and leaders are always encouraged to make decisions and choices based on their own views of the right and wrong choices (Mostovicz, Kakabadse & Kakabadse 1980).Managers and leaders are in expectation to have the stable notions of being able to discern right from wrong choices. They should always put the welfare of the firm before their own welfare.
It will definitely be of tremendous help to managers and leaders to enhance their skills through learning from corporate trainings in reputable institutions (A Key Differentiator 2003). Managers and leaders will definitely benefit from professional advice in enhancing their skills in the workplace. Such professional advice is a valuable and indispensable tool that the leaders can treasure for the rest of their lives.
The most popular leadership style commonly used in various settings is situational leadership. Situational leadership adhere to the belief that the types of leadership styles to execute vary from situation to situation, in accordance to the nature of the firm (Bolden, Gosling, Marturano & Dennison 2003). In other words, the complexities of the production process and the outflows of activities within the premises of the firms largely account for the type of leadership style to utilise.
Leadership needs to be meaningful, not only in the technicalities of performing the tasks at hand, but also on the relevance of the type of leadership position in the firm (Nohria & Khurana 2010). Leaders and managers need to be of concern on the welfare of the firm, arising out of the decisions they make. They should not only focus their concerns on merely executing their duties and responsibilities in the firm.
The learning pace and progress of employees are the bases for competency judgments of their work performances (Garavan & McGuire 1997). Organisations expect employees to learn quickly and efficiently the basic and other extended responsibilities involved in the job descriptions of their positions. The competency of employees reflect the competency of the mentoring strategies of leaders and managers.
Being aware of the expectations that the firm is a basic responsibility of managers and leaders in all industries (Nienaber 1967).Leadership and management do not simply just know the basic protocols of leading and managing. Leaders and managers also need to be aware of the intricacies of their duties and responsibilities, and the expected resulting appraisal of their performances.
Survey Results of Participants 360 Degree Feedback Survey
The results of this survey revealed that the participants received reinforcement, but not advice to conduct major changes (Drew 2009). These results send the message that the participants have done their jobs excellently in being the best leaders in their firms. They only needed minor prompts for improvements of their skills.
Types of Management Development
Informal managerial process initialises informal learning (Mumford 1987). Integrated managerial process initiates a more formal leadership and learning development, as compared to the previous process (Mumford 1987). The formal management development is the height of the core of the development of leadership and learning (Mumford 1987).
Stages in Management Development
Stage one and two, unplanned experiential and reactive management developments, bear similarities with the informal managerial process (Mumford & Gold 2004). Stage 3, planned management development bears similarities with the integrated managerial process (Mumford & Gold 2004). Finally, stage four, planned strategic management development, bears similarities with the formal management development (Mumford & Gold 2004). Economic progress mainly depends on growth of businesses within the country (Mumford & Gold 2004). In order to enable business growths, organisations need good and competent managers (Mumford & Gold 2004).
Critical Analysis and Theoretical Review of the Sources
Many employees in certain regions of the world strongly believe in the charismatic style of leadership. Some employees only abide by the rules set forth by their superiors who command personalities worthy of authorisation. Some employees also prefer managers and leaders who are able to create rapport with them. On the other hand, employees who have low social skills prefer leaders who are systematic, and are not concerned of personal connections with their subordinates.
In my opinion, the charismatic leadership style is a bit bias. I have worked as a leader in an organisation before. I was slacked from my position due to lack of charismatic leadership style. I felt that the experience was unfair to me. I felt that it was not a justifiable reason to strip me off my position. I prefer relationships with employees to maintain friendliness and rapport. Work will be very tedious, depressing and stressful if no good kinship exists between the relationship of the employees and the leaders.