In this chapter, some some early evidences of the management practice, significance of the management practice, Classical Approaches which include Taylor and Franck’s, Lilian Gilbreth’s, Fayol’s and Weber’s contribution to management, use of scientific management, general administrative theory, Quantitative approach including total quality management, use of quantitative approach by managers, behavioral approach, contemporary approach, Islamic perspective about management, and Arab management practices are discussed. The ancient management can be contributed to the Pyramids of Egypt, Great Wall of China, and to the floating warship lines of the Venetians. Then in 1776 Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations was published in which he has given the concept of the division of level in order to increase labor’s productivity. Then advancements in industry have replaced human labor with the machine power, and large organizations were built for better management.
Fredrick Taylor known as the Father of Scientific Management has given a theory of scientific management in the book Principles of Scientific Management (1911), in which that the best method to perform the job is to put the right person on right job with right tools and equipments, the method of doing job should be standardized and economic incentives should be provided to the workers. In order to ensure the scientific management he has suggested for development of science for every element of the work of individual in order to replace the previous rule of thumb, he focused on scientifically selection, training, teaching, and development of worker, encouraged scientific cooperation with the worker, and suggested for the division of work and the responsibility between the management and workers.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth has emphasized on the increase in the productivity of the worker by reducing the wasted motion. They have developed microchronometer in order to time the worker motions and for optimizing their performance. Today the managers are using time and motion studies in order to increase their productivity, and are designing incentive systems based on the output of workers. Henry Fayol has developed 14 principles of management that are applicable to all the situations of organization, the principles are Division of labor, Authority, Discipline, Unity of Command, Unity of Direction, Subordination of individual interests to the general interest, Remuneration, Centralization, Scalar chain, Order, Equity, Stability of tenure of personnel, Initiative, Esprit de corps. Max Weber has given a Theory of Authority based on bureaucracy, in which he has emphasized on rationality, predictability, impersonality, technical competence, and authoritarianism.
The Quantitative approach, however, focus on Focuses on improving the managerial decision making with the application of statistics, optimization models, information models and computer simulations. Furthermore, the quality management is the Intense focus on the customer, Concern for continual improvement, Process focused, Improvement in the quality of everything the organization doe, Accurate measurement, and Empowerment of employees. The organization behavior deals with the actions of the people at work, and considers people as the essential asset of the organization. Robert Owen, Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett, Chester Barnard are the renowned early advocates of OB.
In Arab, the administrative perspective was simple and was not based on the concepts of equality and fairness, Islam has changed this perspective in 622 C.E. Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) has changed the overall perspective of management and work. Under, Islamic perspective, the employee can get his share quickly, work is considered as an act of worship, in which employees work as Amana or trust, and the employers are responsible for fairness and humane treatment with employees for ensuring Itqan or quality.