Schools of ethical thinking in Ancient China
Ancient China had four schools of ethical thinking. These schools include Confucianism, Daoism, Mohism and Legalism. Confucianism proposes that the state must have moral character. This is to inspire virtue in its people. Mohist ethical theory believes in universal care for one another (Skorupski 12). Legalist ethical theory proposes that the state should pursue external goods such as order, prosperity and dominance. It incorporates punishment for crimes. Daoists believe in shadowy presence of rulers. It proposes pattern-based political programs. I believe legalism can best deal with ethical decision and analysis as it’s premised on the rule of law. Punishing violators of ethical principles restores order in the society.
Relationship between culture and ethics: Ethics of Ancient India
The ethics of ancient India is premised on Hindu ethics. Hindu ethics borrows its origins on Ramayana and Mahabharata (Williams 7). These stress justice, truthfulness and mercy. The Indian culture encompasses four human goals. These include sensual pleasure, morality, success and freedom (Skorupski 24). I believe that religion should foster moral behaviour. Sensual pleasure should be exercised with the confines of morality.
Comparison of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Greek thinker
Socrates tackled ethical questions through conversations (Skorupski 31). However, it was his lack of apology for anything led to his eventual death. Plato’s works focuses on ethics and politics. He advises that people should embrace moral philosophy. Aristotle’s major preoccupation was the subject of good. He describes an understanding of goodness as an intermediate aim of the enterprise (Skorupski 41). Later Greek thinker, Epicurus, while advancing the works Socrates, Plato and Aristotle observed that people should rehearse happiness (Skorupski 53). He observed that there is plenty in the presence of happiness and that the lack of it must inspire actions that create it.
Skorupski, John, ed. The Routledge companion to ethics. Routledge, 2010.
Williams, Bernard. Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy. Taylor & Francis, 2011.