1. A "Virtue of anarchy" (or a positive effect of the constant threat of the use of force) in the international system according to Kenneth Waltz. (From Anarchic structures and balances of power, mainly Virtues of Anarchy)
Kenneth Waltz argues that countries reside in a state of war. Nation-states are guided solely by self-interests both internal, such as economic and military power, and external, by forming alliances and counter blocks. Some countries may have military potential and can use it anytime they want as a means of self-interest. K. Waltz implies that this violence is due to the anarchy, or chaos present in international society. Force is defined as constant in international relations; therefore it is always present among countries. In condition of self-interest and anarchy the countries unintentionally form balance of power. When every country has the possibility to use force, they merely use the opportunities to do so. Thus, balance of power helps to preserve peace in the international arena. This is what Kenneth Waltz calls a “positive” effect of the constant threat of the use of force.
2. The relation between political realism and morality according to Hans Morgenthau. (3rd principle)
It will be wrong to state that political realism has nothing to do with moral principles. On the contrary, political realism is concerned about morality of political actions. Both of them usually cannot be used together at the same time, and as Hans Morgenthau states universal principles cannot be applied to realistic purposes. Main reason for that is that every nation-state puts self-interest at the first place of its rational behavior, and particularly that self-help leaves no room for moral values. However, morality can be applied to state actions, if and only if it is compatible to specific time and circumstances. Political consequences are important, and they can and need to be judged by ethics.
3. According to Robert O. Keohane, who might effectively monitor the actions of international organizations and thus reduce what refers to as the «democratic deficit»? (From “democratic deficit”)
Democratic deficit appears in international institutions mainly because it is a “closed door” politics: a decision-making process is conducted among small number of people known as elite. In order to reduce this trend Robert O. Keohane suggests increasing transparency, through public decision-making. He does not, however, state that international institutions are required to be fully democratic. He gives IMF as an example of some organizations that can function without direct democratic control. He suggests promotion of network of various scientists, professionals and activists, so that these networks can be included in decision-making process. The direct result of such transnational network is the enhancement of democracy. He concludes that increasing transparency of international institutions solidified transnational networks will improve democratic accountability of national institutions to its domestic civil society.
4. What is the effectiveness of conquering and maintaining control over foreign territories as an instrument to stop suicide terrorism according to Robert A. Pape? (From Nationalistic goal and last paragraph)
One of the reasons of the suicide terrorism is the strategy of terrorists that seeks to pursue a nationalistic goal. This goal has aroused from foreign military occupation of territories by world powers. Examples to this include terrorist suicides from Lebanon, Chechnya, Palestine and many others. What unites all of them is the fact that they have no control of their own territory. By “suicide terrorism” they try to gain independence and expel foreign occupants from their countries. The willingness of world powers to change the ruling system of countries only leads to an increase in the number of terrorists. Robert A. Pape links foreign military occupation and growth of terrorist movements. He further suggests temporarily stoppage of this approach of containing terrorism, as it is ineffective and aggravates the situation.