Background: This research is based on the background that human resource management and activities in the health sector of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is generally not evaluated as a unique component of independent studies. However, there is evidence that human resource management in the healthcare sector is very different from that of other sectors around the world. Therefore, the study sought to study the demographics, education, experience, career development and levels of job satisfaction amongst HR professionals in hospitals in Riyadh.
Methods: The study evaluated various components of the HRM practices and processes of hospitals in Riyadh. All in all, 23 respondents were studied and they were asked about important things relating to their work in the respective hospitals. The findings are reviewed and analyzed with the SPSS software to define important trends and statistical variances in the findings.
Results: The main results indicate that most of the hospitals in Riyadh have males heading the human resource management unit. The findings indicate that most of the professionals are fairly well educated and experienced. However, HR departments in the kingdom are dominantly ran by male professionals and they are mainly an ageing population. Also, most firms do not have a recruitment and retention strategy. Although most firms carry out various forms of evaluations and credentialing, they do not have a specialist approach that is aimed at promoting the interest of the technically competent professionals in the healthcare facilities.
Conclusion: The researcher recommends that there should be an in-depth study into this subject in order to reflect on recent changes in Saudi polity and how it affects the human resource management processes and systems. This study must address current issues identified in this study in the context of the transition that the kingdom is going through.
This chapter of the dissertation will introduce the fundamental essence and basic variables of the research. It will lay out the way the research problem relates to the real world and provide a discussion of the fundamental aims and objectives of the study. It will provide an outline of how the work will be done and how it will be conducted.
The health sector in every country around the world is unique and distinct because it often relies on a capital structure that is different from other profit-oriented entities. A healthcare facility is strongly influenced by national health policies and healthcare is generally influenced by modern and efficient technology. These structures naturally imply that the human resource management systems of every hospital or healthcare facility are destined to be influenced by these variables.
Various studies establish that proper human resource management is essential for the provision of high quality healthcare. Therefore, every hospital or medical facility will need to set up an appropriate human resource management policy that responds to the status quo and provide the best kind of solution to the human resource challenges they are faced with.
However, unlike conventional human resource management which comes with a profit orientation, the health sector’s human resource management system requires a high degree of sensitivity to stakeholder needs which leads to a completely different set of variables necessary for success in HRM. In spite of this, there is no clear-cut and universally agreed standards and systems that define HRM in the healthcare sector around the world.
On the other hand, there is evidence that exists that negative human resource management practice leads to various negative outcomes and results for a firm. Therefore, the healthcare industry of a given organization or geographical area will need to set up a system and structure for the attainment of the best and most optimal systems and processes of instituting and implementing human resource management.
Saudi Arabia is a major oil exporting country and it has invested heavily in modern infrastructure over the past 40 years, which includes building modern state-of-the-art healthcare facilities around the country. However, most of the healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia are foreigners who are hired from other developed countries around the world. Little is however known about Saudi Arabia’s healthcare industry and how it is managed and the human resource management system.
Aims and Objectives of Study
The aim of the study is to generate knowledge of the challenges faced by human resource managers in private and public hospitals in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia and the interventions used by these human resource managers to resolve these challenges. In order to attain this end, the following objectives will be explored:
- A critical evaluation of the human resource managers’ perceptions of the challenges faced in HR in the hospitals;
- An analysis of the strategies used by the human resource managers in these Saudi hospitals to deal with the challenges they are faced with;
- Evaluate the status of HR managers and the influence of education, training and experience in influencing this.
Motivation for Research
This research is in partial fulfillment in my degree requirements. This is because the degree requires that I complete a project of this magnitude whereby I utilize various tools and techniques in research methods to deal with a substantive issue.
The research will also enable me to investigate a major issue of relevance to my generation. Through this, I will be able to deduce a given problem relevant to health and human resource management and apply it to the development of Saudi Arabia. This will help the country and contribute to the development of healthcare in other parts of the world.
Organization of Study
This dissertation will be conducted in five chapters. This chapter is the first chapter and it provides an outline to the main essence of the project. The next chapter is a critical review of literature. This provides discussions that lay the foundation for the actual study. The third chapter designs a fieldwork that will provide the impetus for the deduction of important findings that will be used to draw conclusion. Chapter 4 will present important discussions of the findings and the last chapter will involve the formulation of theories that will answer the fundamental research questions.
This chapter will involve an investigation of important concepts and theories relevant to the study. As a dissertation steeped in the social sciences, there is the need for the research to build on existing knowledge. This will ensure that the research provides important findings and conclusion that will be based on the general body of knowledge that exists in the industry. To this end, the chapter will evaluate important theories, groundbreaking definitions and other concepts that will provide a framework for the design of the research and the interpretation of the findings of this study.
Human Resource Management
Most people view human resource management as a system through which firms make the best of their workers. There are numerous definitions of human resource management. One such definition states that “human resource management is the function performed in organizations that facilitates the most effective use of peoples (employees) to achieve organizational and individual goals”.
This implies that HRM is a system through which an organization uses the most efficient and the most effective tools for the achievement of individual and the organization’s goals. This is perhaps the definition of human resource management that sets it apart from Personnel Management which was the previous system through which workers were seen as a means to an end - profitability. Human Resource Management on the other hand integrates aspects of an individual’s personal developmental goals and objectives alongside the organization’s goals and aims.
According to Armstrong, HRM has four main facades and this includes:
- Human Capital Management;
- Human Resource Development;
- Reward Management and
- Employee Relations
These four pointers indicate that the HR department of an organization will have to examine ways of recruitment and section as part of its human capital management. This includes evaluating staffing needs, assessing the best persons and putting them in the appropriate roles. Human Resource Development is about how a firm appraises and trains and develops its employees. Reward management relates to motivation and how to keep workers compensated for their effort in the way that provides the best returns for the organization. Finally, employee relations is about how employee needs are communicated and handled within the organization as opposed to industrial relations where trade unionism leads to major collective demands in the economy at a given point in time.
Another view indicates that performance management is the central role of human resource management because the main aim of HRM is to ensure that workers are employed and they are contributing collective to meet the firm’s collective desires and expectations. This implies that HRM is meant to collectively mobilize the efforts of the members of staff in an organization and ensure that it is all working together to produce the best results expected of the top level management of a firm.
Essence of HRM
Human resource management brings together three main components, strategic, technical and administrative components. The strategic component involves linking the overall plans and objectives of the top-level management with the employee management tasks of the firm. The technical component involves the use of concepts and theories to optimize the effort of staff members in an organization whilst the administrative component revolves around record keeping and compliance
Human resource management in the hospital setting, plays a role of bringing together the different skill sets and the different work requirements in a complicated system to ensure optimal results of all staff members. This implies aggregating all the different HR needs and trying to get them to work together for the best result of a given medical or healthcare facility.
There are various challenges that come with human resource management in organizations around the world. Numerous studies have presented different views and different ideas of what the biggest challenges faced by HRM is. One of such studies identify that Leadership Development, Cultural Competency and Communication Skills are the topmost challenges that any successful HRM drive needs to master and gain control over.
Other authorities identify that the biggest challenge faced by the average HRM unit of an entity is the adaptation to change as and when it occurs. However, the most significant and important challenge identified by another writer is the ability to contain costs. This is because the current trend towards cost build ups in the work place indicates that there are a lot of costs that is involved in the running of a human resource management department. Thus, the ability to cut down on costs and reduce the level of payments enables the HR department to work within its allocated budget. Thus, the optimization of the resources available is an important virtue that can be used by a firm to meet this challenge.
Retaining and maintaining the best workers and leaders in an organization forms the fundamental and most basic need of the HRM as per another view. This is from a survey that was conducted on the main HRM needs in organizations around the world. This culminated in a series of findings that showed that human resource management requires the ability to maintain and retain the best workers in order to fill sensitive positions in an organization.
Empirical studies also indicated that the lack of expertise in hospitals in the Middle East is a major problem and issue. These problems led to poor employee retention, poor performance evaluation, and poor specialist retention. These problems are said to be common throughout the Arab world.
Resolution of HR Challenges
There are many approaches that are recommended for the improvement of human resource management in order to deal with the challenges that come with human resource management. One of the approaches recommended by some authorities include the utilization of a proactive approach that involves an agile, result-oriented approach that involves continuous monitoring of the existing operations in order to detect issues that emerge and deal with them as and when they come up.
Another recommendation involves the use of good psychological tools to analyze the needs of a given organization, measure it up accurately and provide appropriate solutions to it. This involves talent management and talent retention through various tools to evaluate what the workforce needs and what is more important than the other. Through this, change can be effectively deduced and managed as and when it occurs in an organization.
In order to deal with human resource challenges, a firm will need to detect some important pointers and follow them up through critical reviews to identify what they are and how they are affecting the organization. The main pointers of significance that must be examined and reviewed include:
- Job Satisfaction;
- Turnover &
When these things are identified, they must be traced and evaluated in order to provide an overview of the problem at hand and then a solution will be prescribed for the company to improve. Through this, a firm will be able to deduce its problems and provide a practical solution to it in the HRM sense in order to attain the best and most optimal results.
Other approaches include the integration of appraisals and evaluation of worker needs in order to find a solution to how they must be improved. This is part of an overall career development system in which the worker development needs of an individual is defined and handled within the right context and framework.
Human Development and Quality Management
For all practical purposes, there is the need for a degree of human development to be attained in organizations. This is because human capital is seen as a tool for competitive advantage. Therefore, there is the need for firms to identify the competency levels of the employees they have and work on steadily developing it and improving it.
Performance appraisal is an important and vital aspect of healthcare management and healthcare human resource performance management. Performance appraisal is a critical part of performance management because it enables a firm to examine what they need and from there, they can identify the gaps in the performance status and the performance expectations. This shows the major differences and limitations in the existing systems. This helps to show what must be done to improve the existing system and also enhance performance levels and standards.
This is done through the definition of performance definition, performance processes, performance measurement and feedback/coaching. Performance appraisal is about the past and it helps the firm to develop the needs and expectations and also improve for the future. This is done through the modification of the existing systems and improving to meet all the expectations.
Other views indicate that appraisal systems are based on organizational performance needs and expectations. This is done through the evaluation of the performance targets and standards of the firm in order to identify what must be done through the operation of the firm and also set practical and measurable targets and expectations. This provides the right framework and process through which the measurements can be done.
One of the challenges in appraisal in the healthcare industry includes the combination of all the different stakeholder expectations in order to define the main rating targets and expectations. This is quite complicated because there are different expectations of various stakeholders in the healthcare industry which is not the same as looking at just customer expectations and desires in a normal profit-oriented firm or organization.
Career management is an important part of human resource management in organizations and entities, this is because it provides a structured system through which workers can develop their careers in a structured framework. In the absence of career management, workers of an organization will be forced to develop their careers in isolation without any connection to the organization. This is somewhat difficult and it is against the fundamental elements and aspects of human resource management. This is because human resource management is identified to be a system through which the individual and organizational development of workers is done. This means that career development must be seen as a system through which workers can be developed alongside the organization’s needs. Therefore, career development is an important aspect of human resource development as opposed to unsupported human resource development.
Career development might also be based on direct and straightforward demands and expectations of the firm. In the healthcare industry, there are various forms of career development needs relating to the changes in technology and changes in economic and social factors. These career development actions might be necessary because it will help a given individual in the organization setting to attain a desired level of productivity.
Career development is not an isolated process. It ought to be done with the general understanding and view of the supervisor of a given employee in order to enhance the way and manner within which it is applied in the organizational setting to attain desired results. This involves the process through which the different elements of cooperation can be done to enable a firm to make the best from the development of career in an organization.
Human Resource Management Professional Development
There is also the need for the HRM unit of an organization to be ran and controlled by appropriately qualified personnel. This is because it enables the workers to identify what they need in each situation and ensure that they achieve it in the best way possible.
“Education, Experience and Ethics are the three most important things in the development of human resource professionals in order to deal with the best needs and expectations of the human resource management activities of an organization. This implies that there is the need for education and exposure to be at the highest level in order to attain the best results for an organization or a firm.
Education is important because it gives a human resource management professional to understand the basic theories and concepts necessary for the attainment of optimal results in the workplace. This is important because it allows the human resource management to understand various concepts on which ideas and views can be built upon.
Once an HR professional has the necessary education or qualification, there is the need for experience and exposure to ensure that they are able to understand how the theories work. Experience is important because it allows a professional in the HR industry to understand the realities on the job and in practice and position himself or herself in the best way of working to achieve these ends. On the other hand, experience is important to provide experimentation and optimize the inputs and outputs of a given professional.
Ethics guide the conduct of professionals and this gets HR professionals to take decisions on the basis of all the relevant situations and matters that are relevant to the situation or matter at hand. Therefore, there is the need for HRM in the health sector to be sensitive to all the ethical matters and try to provide develop this competency in all situations in order to attain the best results.
Gaps in Research
The research identifies that human resource management is important and it aims at getting a firm to optimize the inputs of workers in organizations. This is meant to promote the best results from the organization. Other viewers examine HRM from the angle of the attainment of results in strategic, technical and administrative functions.
Human resource management faces numerous challenges and this includes the challenge of evaluation and assessment of changes that occur in a proactive manner. This is done through performance management and appraisal. On the other hand, this is done through the use of other performance management techniques is used as a means of examining and evaluating changes that will be modified in operations. Career development is an important part of this and it could be seen as a means of streamlining personal development needs. On another hand, it is seen as a direct means of improving and enhancing the best output of staff members.
Career development is based on appraisal and performance management. Career development system must not be in isolation. It must be done with the connection of different processes. The work of an HRM Professional must include the attainment of ethical, educational and experience needs of professionals. These different things come together to ensure that the human resource management system of organizations is done in a way and manner that brings out the best in an organization.
This section of the dissertation will discuss the methodology and approach that will be used to conduct the research and draw logical conclusions. As identified in Chapter 1, the research seeks to examine important trends and processes in the human resource management of the health sector of Saudi Arabia. In order to do this, there is the need for the research to conduct a fieldwork that will provide empirical conclusions on the challenges faced by HR in the population under review and provide important and logical conclusion that can be utilized in theorization.
The research will be a deductive research that will be done through the collection of information about the way and manner in which human resource management is done. This will be done in order to gain information about the main features, trends and processes in human resource management in Saudi hospitals. This will provide a set of information that will be utilized in identifying trends in human resource management in the Saudi hospitals.
The research will use a positivist approach to define the major trends and processes that define the systems and processes necessary for the conduct of research. This will be done through the gathering of information about trends and processes in the industry.
Data will be collected through a cross-sectional study. Cross-sectional study is a form of observational study that is done through the analysis of data collected from a population that represents trends in a given period of time
Data will be collected from a sample of the heads of human resource managers in healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This will include information that relates to the trends and processes that exists in their healthcare facilities.
The data will be collected by way of a questionnaire that will be presented to these human resource management. The questions will be presented in order to provide information about important trends and processes that exist in their hospitals. This will involve information about basic activities and important challenges that can be used to provide major clues about what happened in the period between 2012 and 2014.
The sample population will include a group of HR professionals in three categories of Saudi hospitals. This will include hospitals with less than 100 beds, those with 100 to 200 beds and those with over 200 beds. This will culminate in findings that will be generalized for a class of hospitals and HR units. The questions will bring out information about the background of these practitioners and their views on how human resource management is conducted in their respective hospitals. A total of 23 professionals in this area will be studied and their submissions will be processed for further analysis. `
The data will be programmed onto SPSS and utilized as a means for aggregation. The important trends and major processes will be put together and analyzed in order to provide information about what actually exists in practice in these human resource management units of the hospitals in question. The aggregation will guide and provide important basis for the drawing up of conclusions in the research.
The major trends that will be obvious to the data collection and analysis will be deduced and used as a means of drawing important conclusions about human resource management systems and processes in Saudi hospitals. The trends will be generalized and presented as a means of drawing conclusion that will be used to answer the fundamental research questions.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
The study culminated in the presentation of 23 questionnaires to 23 different respondents in Saudi hospitals located in Riyadh. The findings were brought together and programmed into an SPSS system and analyzed.
The analysis was done in three parts. In the first part, there was a review of the backgrounds of the training and development of the respondents, who are human resource managers in the Saudi health sector. The second part outlined the major trends and patterns in the activities and affairs of these healthcare human resource managers. Finally, the last part of the analysis examined the relationship between education and various variables relevant to the respondents.
Backgrounds of Training and Development of HR Managers
The study indicates that all 23 respondents replied their questionnaires. This was analyzed and reviewed in order to provide important feedback and insights. From the respondents, 87% of the respondents were heads of a human resource unit of a hospital in Riyadh. Only 9% were of another background whilst 4% were of a subordinate position or background. A total of 35% had a Bachelors in Business Administration, 9% held other Bachelors’ degrees whilst 26% had a Masters in Business Administration whilst the rest held other qualifications.
Only 43% had HR qualifications whilst another 57% had other qualifications that were not based on HR. However, 30% of the 57% without HR qualifications were studying towards some form of HR qualification. However, 73% of the respondents showed that they were interested in studying and analyzing more HR methods and processes. A total of 65% of the respondents had previous HR experience before they joined the current hospital they work with.
The implication of the findings indicates that the majority of HR professionals in Riyadh’s hospitals were not primarily trained in HR matters. However, the position of 43% shows that there is a change. This is because HRM is a fairly new field that was not so common in Saudi Arabia in the past decade. There is also hope because a sizeable minority of the respondents is studying towards some kind of HR qualification. And a lot of the respondents are working towards getting some kind of HR qualification.
This section of the research will present various elements and aspects of the SPSS analysis that relates to specific sectors and matters that were analyzed. This will culminate in the presentation of important ideas and concepts necessary for the formulation of conclusions.
The gender of a given practitioner in the HR is not very important. However, most cross cultural dimensions draw a balance between quality of life and quantity of life on the basis of gender roles in a given organization.
This statistic shows that most of the respondents who head HR units of these hospitals are male, rather than females. This is a reflection of the fact that quantity of life is a major aspect of the HR cultures and systems of these hospitals.
Chart 1: Gender Distribution
Hence, there is a general conclusion that most of the human resource managers in the healthcare industry in Saudi Arabia are male. This brings about the question of gender balance and the integration of qualitative ideas and concepts in the human resource management industry of the country’s health sector.
Age Dynamics & Duration in the Hospital
Age is important because it shows the kind of future a given industry is meant to go through. The distribution identified from the study is presented below:
Chart 2: Age Distribution in Response
This response rate indicates that there is a reasonable distribution of respondents amongst the various classes of people. And this shows that most healthcare units and facilities have a tendency towards the maintenance of the right and appropriate kind of dynamics that will ensure that in the coming years, there will be the right succession system. This is a positive view of the human resource system of the health sector.
Viewing the fact that the respondents were from different backgrounds, the average duration of the respondents in the healthcare sector as HR professionals is reviewed. And the aggregation presents a figure of 9.07 years. This shows that most of the respondents are heavily experienced in what they do in relation to the healthcare sector.
Size of Hospitals of Respondents
The study indicates that the respondents were from different backgrounds. And the majority of the respondents were working in large hospitals. This includes hospitals with over 200 beds. However, a reasonable number were working in medium and smaller establishments.
HR Practice in the Hospitals
This is about the practice of the various medical institutions that are studied in the research. To this end, the different activities and processes that were carried out and important findings were put together in order to find conclusions.
General Assessment of Staff
This section was focused on examining and reviewing the regularity of assessment and review of staff members.
Most of the respondents identified that there was regular annual appraisal of staff within their organization. Hence, there is a trend towards performance management and performance assessment as a means of seeking continuous improvement in these firms. However, there is a significant minority of respondents who do not partake in these appraisal exercises, thereby echoing fears of poor management practices of the HR departments of these entities.
Periodic Assessment of Medical Professional Competencies
In this section, there was the need to analyze the extent to which the participating hospitals assess the technical competencies of staff members. This was somewhat different and distinct from other general assessments.
Approximately 74% stated that they do a technical analysis and review. This shows that there is a general trend towards the analysis and review of the technical abilities of these staff members in the hospitals.
Method of Training
This was to evaluate the kind of training that is done by the various hospitals. The majority stated that they give in-house and off-site training to their staff members on a regular basis. However, some stated that they focus more on in-house training.
HRM Challenges and Solutions in the Hospitals
This section of the research focused more on the human resource management strategies and structures that exists in these hospitals. This includes the various activities and processes carried out in the hospitals.
This question is about the kind of challenges faced by the respondents. Thus, they are asked whether they seen any kind of obvious challenge in their hospitals. The majority answered in the affirmative, as stated in table 7 below.
Top 3 HR Challenge
The study identifies that Specialization inadequacies are the topmost problems in the hospitals. However, the next problem is about the work environment
Possibility of Improving Performance
The respondents were asked if they thought a proper intervention from an HR angle could help to deal with the problem. The answers are compiled in Table 9. This shows that the vast majority believe that HRM can be applied appropriately to create solutions to the issues and problems in their organization.
HR Retention Strategy
The respondents were asked if they had an HR-retention strategy in order to identify how well they are able to deal with issues and matters.
The findings indicate that there is a retention strategy for most of the hospitals but a significant minority does not have such a strategy.
This section has compiled the different findings of the study. This has shown major trends and processes in the different responses of the field work and the identification of the different circumstances that exists in the Saudi health sector. This provides important clues on the processes or systems and how they work together for the attainment of the best results. This next chapter will present the conclusions of the major trends and the major theories that answer the fundamental research questions. The findings will be presented in order to provide important conclusions of the study.
The research sought to deduce the important challenges faced by human resource management in private and public hospitals in Saudi Arabia by examining trends in Riyadh’s hospitals. The study concentrated on the examination of HR managers’ perceptions of the challenges faced in HR in their hospitals. Also, important strategic gaps in human resource management are deduced in the study. Finally, the study also sought to deduce important trends in the education, training and experience in human resource management.
This chapter presents the fundamental findings of the study and summarizes important conclusions under three headings. The chapter will also examine the areas for future research and future studies.
Trends in the Demographics of HR Management in Saudi Healthcare Facilities
The study identifies that HR management in healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia are fundamentally male. The gender balance in Saudi Arabia shows a major difference as compared to other countries of the western world. This is because most of the heads of HR units of the HR departments of the country’s hospital.
The age dynamics of most HR professionals in the healthcare industry is such that it is highly structured and the industry can have a reliable succession system and plan. With this, the country has an ample process and system for maintaining a consistent system of healthcare HR.
Education and HR Professionals’ Competency
Most of HRM professionals in the Saudi health industry hold a university degree relevant to their practice. The majority of these professionals have a desire to learn and improve their competency. And that shows that the country’s HR units of the health sector is one in which most of the practitioners are learning to improve their competencies in HR in order to become more productive and better professionals in their field.
Challenges in HR in Healthcare Facilities
The findings indicate that most of the facilities do not have a recruitment and/or retention strategy. This shows that there is a major lapse in some Saudi healthcare facilities in terms of human resource planning and strategy. This is a major flaw that indicates that there as an issue and a risk with the healthcare industry in terms of human resource management.
Career development and credentialing is done in the HR departments of these organizations. However, the credentialing does not contain or focus on specialist activities and processes. This means that they are prone to various lapses and limitations that prevent them from retaining important and vital human resource staff members.
Work environments come with major limitation for the application of various technical components of human resource management in these entities. This culminates in situation here there is no clear plan for the retention of top staff members. Rather, the policies for human resource management are generalist in nature and they only concentrate on doctors, nurses and administrative staffers.
Recommendations for Future Research
There is the need for a more in-depth and thorough study that will examine the root cause of some of these problems. This includes a critical evaluation and review of the cultural trends in healthcare facilities. Also, limitations in facilities can be investigated in the technical sense to identify the fundamental risks and problems that prevents these facilities from achieving their main ends and objectives in HR. Additionally, there is the need for the study of the various equivalent systems that have been evolved to replace all the activities that are not honored in these healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia for recommendations for improvement can be done.
Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. London: Kogan Page.
Biro, M. M. (2012, November 11). 5 Great Challenges Ahead for HR and Leaders. Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/meghanbiro/2012/11/11/5-greatest-challenges-ahead-for-hr-and-leaders/
Boella, M., & Goss-Turner, S. (2013). Human Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry. New York: Routledge.
Bogestedt, V., Xanthos, K., & Johansson, V. (2011). Human Resource Management Functions Applied to Health Care Systems in Developing Countries. KTH Information and Communication Technology , 1-53.
Bonita, R., Beaglehole, R., & Kjellström, T. (2013). Basic Epistemology. New York: WHO.
Bradley, J. C. (2014, July 4). Challenges Faced by Human Resource Managers Because of Technical Changes. Retrieved from Small Business Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/challenges-faced-human-resource-managers-because-technical-changes-61058.html
Budhwar, P. S., & Mellahi, K. (2006). Introduction: Managing Human Resources in the Middle East. In P. S. Budhwar, & K. Mellahi, Managing Human Resources in the Middle East (pp. 7-9). New York: Routledge.
Burke, R. J., & Cooper, C. L. (2012). Reinventing Human Resource Management: Challenges and New Directions. New York: Psychology Press.
Chan, A. (2013, April 4). The Challenges of Human Resource Management. Retrieved from Zero Million: http://www.zeromillion.com/business/hrm.html
Condrey, S. E. (2010). Handbook of Human Resource Management in Government. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Deb, T. (2013). Strategic Approach to Human Resource Management. Delhi: Atlantic Press.
Dias, L. P. (2013). Human Resource Management. London: Flatworld Knowledge.
El-Jardali, F., Tchaghchagian, V., & Jamal, D. (2009). Assessment of Human Resource Management Practices in Lebanese Hospitals. Human Resources for Health 9(84) , 84-92.
Fottler, M. D., Khatri, N., & Savage, G. T. (2011). Strategic Human Resource Management in Health Care. London: Emerald Group Publishing.
Golan, G., & Salem, W. (2013). Non State Actors in the Middle East: Factors for Peace and Democracy. London: Routledge.
Hernandez, S. R. (2009). Strategic Human Resource Management in Health Services Organization. Mason, OH: Cengage.
HIMSS Books. (2013). Preparing for Success in Healthcare Information Management Systems. Chicago, IL: HIMSS.
Hofstede, G. (2008). Cultural Dimensions: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw Hill.
Kabene, S. M., Orchard, C., Howard, J. M., Soriano, M. A., & Leduc, R. (2006). The importance of human resources management in health care: a global context. Human Resources for Health 4:20 , 5-20.
Kaila, H. L. (2013). Human Resource Management. Delhi: Gyan Publishing.
Kumar, R. (2010). Human Resource Management: Strategic Analysis Text And Cases. Delhi: IK Publications.
Lewis, E. M., & Spicer, J. G. (2013). Human Resource Management Handbook: Contemporary Strategies. Aspen, NJ: Aspen Publishers.
Management Study Guide. (2013, March 12). HR Challenges - How to Cope with them Efficiently. Retrieved from MSG: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/hr-challenges.htm
Marsden, P., Caffrey, M., & McCaffrey, J. (2014). Human Resource Management Assessment Approach. USAID/Capacity Aid , 1-55.
McCourt, W. (2012). Global Human Resource Management: Managing People in Developing. Surrey: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Mufti, M. H. (2010). Healthcare Development Strategies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. London: Springer.
Neider, L. L., & Schriesheim, C. (2012). New Directions in Human Resource Management. New York: IAP Press.
Quatro, S. A., & Sims, R. R. (2012). Executive Ethics: Ethical Dilemmas and Challenges for the C-suite. New York: IAP Press.
Randhawa, G. (2013). Human Resource Management. Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.
Rothman, K. J., Greenland, S., & Lash, T. L. (2012). Modern Epidemology. Amsterdam: Wolters Kluwer.
Scarpello, V. G. (2008). The Handbook of Human Resource Management Education. London: SAGE.
Sharma, D. K., & Goyal, R. C. (2013). Hospital Administration and Human Resource Management. Delhi: PHI Publications.
Strategic Human Resource Management. (2012, June 12). Challenges Facing HRM over the Next 10 Years. Retrieved from SHRM: http://www.shrm.org/research/surveyfindings/articles/pages/challengesfacinghroverthenext10years.aspx
Strayer, S. (2013). Vault Guide to Human Resources Careers. London: Vault Publishing.
Styka, T., Konitzer, A., & Richards, M. (2014). Ethics and Internal Hiring: Cases in Effectiveness: Essential Management . London: ICMA Press.
Wilkinson, A., Bacon, N., Redman, T., & Snell, S. (2009). The SAGE Handbook of Human Resource Management. London: SAGE.
Wilton, N. (2012). An Introduction to Human Resource Management. London: SAGE.