Horas Brothers and Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa
The painting has the ancient Greek simplicity and details of neoclassicism. Although the crowning ceremony brings magnificence and decorations to mind, I see the plainest and detailed form of the nobility after examining the art. It has been drawn in such detail that every guest there is easily noticed, and the richness of the clothes they wear is so detailed that it creates the feeling that you have taken it into your hands and examined it. At that moment, everyone gathered for a vital coronation and watched it in excitement. This enthusiasm and excitement are one of the signs of Romanticism.
Although these two paintings bear the simplicity and detail of neoclassicism in terms of style, they differ significantly in the subject. In the Horas Brothers painting, three men were willing to lose their lives while bringing their patriotic duties. On the right side of the art, women are holding age, sadness, and fate. But in Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa painting, there is no patriotism and excitement. Instead, it smells of death and illness. The sick soldiers are stacked too sluggishly, unable to stand. And almost in the middle of the painting, despite Napoleon's plague, who came to visit his soldiers, fearlessly touching and caring about them.
This picture showed the incompetence and death caused by the captain appointed by the monarchic state. It was also used to defame the Monarchic order and to ignite angry people. It includes survival effort, fear of death, despair, and many emotional feelings on a humbly crafted raft under harsh physical conditions, which are parts of Romanticism. The moment was pictured when passengers were thrown themselves forward to see Argus ship and in the excitement of trying to send a sign to the ship. When I look at this table, I realize that I was beating myself like those passengers. I see how I fight for my life on that poor little raft while upper class and politicians watch me drowning.
"Freedom," in which the work is named, is at the center of the picture as a strong, leading woman. The expression of the ideals of the revolution finds meaning in the figure of freedom. Freedom as the Mediterranean goddess; was not idealized like a divine being descending from the sky in the lights. It was mingled with the old clothes, exposed breasts, and hairy armpits and imagined in a way that guides them. Instead of the goddess's self-letting stance in classical descriptions, the woman is depicted in the energetic reaction of the revolution. The flag that the woman carries symbolizes the concepts of freedom, equality, and fraternity, which are the symbols of the French Revolution, and the bayonet-mounted rifle, on the other hand, symbolizes resistance and rebellion.
Constable did not reflect the unrest of the unemployed farmers in Britain due to the widespread machines with the industrial revolution in his The Hay Wain painting. Instead, he showed life happily in harmony with nature with the impressive landscape he created in his work by using Romanticism.
While drawing this painting, Édouard Manet was inspired by Tiziano's Pastoral Concert and Raimundo's The Judgment of Paris. However, the naked women in his work are not idealized naked bodies, goddesses, and nymphs, as in the Renaissance paintings, but contemporary French women of the period. The presence of prostitutes alongside the distinguished French gentlemen of the time caused a reaction in many elite places. Painting is considered a modernist painting not only because of its bold style but for its brand-new style.
Painting from nature
The painter paid great attention to color theories and optical theories. The most important feature of his work was that tiny miniature dots were placed side by side, which was perceived as a single color in the form of an illusion. Although this technique was first called shredding, today, it is called pointillism. Due to this technique, he could only finish his painting in two years. We see the day almost 48 people spend on the edge of the stream, and their callous, sculptural appearance feels like modern times reflect people's rigidity.
Van Gogh has drawn this work with intricate lines that interrupt the flow of brush strokes. Although the view seen in the picture is the view of the city of the mental hospital, the artist transferred his imagination to the painting. It is understood that he longs for freedom because he didn't include the iron railings in the window of his hospital in the picture. The cypress tree in the painting is usually found in cemeteries and has an air evoking death.
“Painting from nature is not copying the object, but realizing our emotions,” says Cézanne. Thus, he wants to show that he has a different perception of nature. In The Bridge at Maincy, he tried to analyze character and space by emphasizing the contrast and tone relations of colors. He thought that everything in nature consists of spheres, cones, cylindrical forms, and the geometrical integrity of character. Thus, he believed that objects are separated by light and shadow differences, not by precise and clear lines. He does not think that the linear skills and the perspective of the void create depth.
Instead of imitating historical styles, Sullivan created original forms and details. The 1891 Wainwright Building, which is located in Louis, has the comprehensive and aesthetic integrity of the architect, is one of America's most historic tall buildings. The ornaments he designed are often associated with the rotating natural forms of the Art Nouveau movement. His other architectural structures, such as the Wainwright Building, also have comprehensive and aesthetic integrity. This feature clearly distinguished his architecture from different architectures and has become his signature.
Art Nouveau Art Movement, which emerged with different names in different countries, is seen as a design revolution. For this reason, it displays a unique character in every country where it occurs. However, its most prominent feature was lit lines and floral decorations. The best example of this is Gustav Klimt, who spread this trend with his art in his own country. One of the most famous works of the artist is Der Kuss (The Kiss). Specified as the pinnacle of Klimt's golden age, this painting attracts attention with its shimmering shades, abstract patterns, and lithe drawings. The gold-colored frame and flowers surrounding the figures are depicted and isolate them from the world. The placement of the figures is considered a combination of death and life.
Contemporary Movements of Painting
Fauves works were reacted in response to their unnatural colors and rough technique, but over time, these works have been described by art historians as pioneers of contemporary movements. They emphasized the reclining of the canvas, refusing options such as perspective and depth. They used colors, not descriptively, to convey the warmth of intense sunlight, feelings of happiness. It is a color-centric trend, and color was one of the most important things. As seen in Andre Derain's Westminster Bridge painting, the colors are pretty sharp and unusual. At first, it evokes a feeling of discontent in man. As if something is going wrong.
This trend believes that people live in the wrong order, arguing that those tribal people, described as primitive savages, actually live correctly. It states that we are not in ascension, but in decline, since the first moment we left to nature. We jump off a high cliff while thinking we are flying without knowing we are crashing to the ground. Picasso, a master in drawing technique, refused to make it a goal to portray nature skillfully. The revolutionary "Les Demoiselles d’Avignon," which deeply shook all of their contemporaries, exemplifies this rejection as a model. Apart from a certain sense of beauty, these five women, who are entirely different from each other, are a painting that symbolizes the peak of Picasso's power in expressionism.
Paula Modersohn Becker is the first woman to paint herself naked. It is possible to find the impressionism of Cézanne, van Gogh or Gauguin in his paintings, Picasso's cubism, fauvism, Japanese art, and even German renaissance in her art. According to her time, she showed her skill fearlessly. In Self-Portrait, warm and cold tones were used together, and as a result, a pleasant picture emerged. The revealing of the female body reveals its beauty and normality instead of creating unnecessary shame. The woman in this portrait, adorned with flowers, never looked like a prostitute, but on the contrary, she made a pretty innocent look of a young girl.
The most prominent features of this trend are rhythm, dynamism, and simultaneous movement. This movement, which can be interpreted as the aesthetics of speed or giving visual expression to the action, is also accepted as a new impressionist movement. It gains a formal appearance by following the futuristic painting and sculpture. One of the essential works in this field is Boccioni's unique work called Unique Forms of Continuity in Space. Here he preferred to give the movement in other forms in the sculpture. According to the artist's philosophy, "Dynamism-centered object and its relation to the environment" was studied. It can be seen that the statue is built on speed. We understand this from volatile and undulating forms that evoke speed and movement on the figure.
The world that appears in Supremacism alone does not make sense, it is the emotion that is important, and the passion is independent of the environment that arouses it. No matter what period it belongs to, the real value is only the emotion it gives. When producing the artist's work, it is known that the art forms, thoughts, concepts, and images pushing aside and trying to reach pure emotion. Kazimir Malevich's “Black Square” can be seen as a significant work. The subject of Kazimir Malevich's work, painted on the white background in a square with black oil painting, is NOTHING. Although this work continues to be rejected, the black court frees up, reflects the freedom to breathe freely, and makes artists remember that they can paint whatever they want.
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