The field of Nanoscience has evolved due to the other advancements in the other fields of study such as the Nanotechnology. While the latter is a subset of the former, there is credible evidence that points to the fact that Nanotechnology has been developed thanks to various areas such as biology, material science, engineering physics, chemistry and much more. It is the foundation on which the Magnetic Nanoparticles have been embedded. MNP is nanoparticle that has the magnetic manipulation ability.
Thus, this paper focuses on the study of the Magnetic Nanoparticles especially how they are formed or synthesized and their respective applications in the medical field. Biomedical field has been at the forefront in the quest to exhaust the possible applications of the MNP’s. The objectives of this paper are to dig deeper and explain the formation or the synthesis of the nanostructure and how they are related to their applications. It also gives the detailed explanation of the characterization of the MNP’s.
Some of the key findings are that the MNP’s have been exhaustively used in the medical field in the treatment of cancers especially in the processes of the transportation of the drugs to the tumor sites and the retention of drugs in such sites. The smaller the nanoparticle, the larger the surface area to volume ratio and the more precious it is.
In the field of science, researchers have gone ahead to the extent of exploring and studying extremely tiny things which may be used in various processes. Such elements are considered in fields such as biology, chemistry, physics and other areas such as material science and even engineering. It is in these kinds of study that nanoscience and nanotechnology as areas of study and concepts are conceptualized.
Through simple understanding, nanoscience can be defined as the science that deals with the study and analyses of the small things or particles that are pertinent in fulfilling various scientific concepts. In other cases, it may also be defined as the process or the study of objects in nanometers. The name hence becomes a derivative of the unit of measurement. Nanoscience has lately become a very relevant aspect of science in the modern era because scientists are applying this concept in many areas to solve problems (Akbarzadeh, Samiei, and Davaran Pg. 1).
Nanoscience has given rise to another subset area which is known as the nanotechnology. This is a field that deals with the manipulation of the various atoms and even the molecules. Through the increased ventures into the area of nanotechnology; many scientists such as biologists, physicians, chemists, and engineers have developed the ability to work at the cellular, and even molecular levels. They invent various helpful concepts in the fields of the life sciences and even in the health care (Akbarzadeh, Samiei, & Davaran, Pg. 1).
Nanoscience and nanotechnology as two areas that are related have dee-lying importance to the industries where they are bring applied. Their relevance may be found in the applications of the nanotechnology which has yielded impressive results in the fields where it has been implemented. The Magnetic Nanoparticles are therefore explained and considered to be the class of nanoparticles which are tiny as their name suggest, but they have the ability to be manipulated using the magnetic fields. The MNP have two components that are responsible for the functions. They include the magnetic material which in most cases could be metallic elements such as Nickel, Cobalt or any other; and a chemical element.
Nanoparticles have desirable qualities that make them more preferable. Such properties may include the physicochemical properties and the small unique sizes which has enabled the NP’s to thrive in the fields such as biotechnology, biomedical, material sciences and engineering and much more. At the moment, many scientists have invested their time in the preparation of various kinds of the MNPs (Faraji, Yamini, and Rezaee Pg.1). Perhaps this is an incident that may be attached to the fact that the demand for the MNPs is on the rise because various fields have opened up to their utilization and there are other benefits that are attached to them. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are two related areas that are significant to the development of the synthesis and the use of the MNPs. There is a unique structure that explains the nanoscale phenomena of the MNPs. Such would explain the structural component of the MNP and its synthesis as depicted below.
The structural/chemical and the nanoscale phenomena of the MNP
The chemical or structural elements of the Magnetic Nanoparticles may be explained by how they have been conceived. However, such conception would depend on what the scientists or the researchers want to achieve in the study. The MNP consist of the atomic and bulk levels of components which are used in the formation. Nano-level is a level that implies that the size of the particles get smaller and microscopic because there is the linked large surface area to the volume ratio. The Nanoparticles have numerous functions and are therefore tailored in various ways. When making the NP’s, the producers rely on the material and the application to come up with the intended product. They are products that have high chemical activity and therefore; many scientists have recommended that these products should be kept properly to prevent them from any potential oxidation. The oxidation process in this context may involve various activities such as the functionalization and the formation of the protective shell around the product (Khan, K., Rehman, S., Rahman, H. U., & Khan Pg. 1).
The health sector has been the most common field that has been targeted with the adoption of the MNP’s. The iron oxides are some of the most famous Magnetic Nanoparticles that have been used. They exist in many categories are they belong to the different groups. Some of the iron oxides that are categorized as the MNP’s include Fe3O4, α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, CoFe2O4 (Lyubutin et al. Pg. 1). By nature, these iron oxides are supposed to be nontoxic, and they must be having some high levels of biocompatibility with the body.
Another class of the Magnetic nanoparticles can be found within the carbon group. In most cases, these are mostly in the forms of CaCO3 particles and much more. Depending on the components, the MNP’s are assigned varying levels of functions that they are supposed to play. As an example, the nanoparticles that belong to the iron oxide group are very useful in the preparation of the biodegradable polyelectrolytes. Hollow capsules may also be acquired through the use of the CaCO3 which is very helpful in the development of the polyelectrolytes (Lyubutin et al. Pg. 1).
There are other examples of the Magnetic Nanoparticles that have other compositions in their make-up. Some of those particles would include the dextran-coated magnetic particles which may be likened to the water particles. Water and dextran NP are represented by the chemical symbols H2O and respectively D2O. The similarity between the dextran and water may be assessed at the level of scattering. Their molecules behave in the same way, but dextran has somewhat lowered intensity. The Intensity that is exhibited by the dextran can be likened what is found in the Fe3O4 or the iron IV oxide. (Krycka et al. Pg. 4).
MNP’s are known, or their magnetic feature and such is what makes them be preferred by the scientists. Given that there are many NP’s with different structures, using the also requires different kinds of magnetic reception. Some of the informal magnetic receptions would include diamagnetism, ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, paramagnetism and ferromagnetism.
Synthesis of MNP
Magnetic Nanoparticles are synthesized in various ways. These are compounds which have various functions, and that would warrant that when they are being formulated, dynamic approaches are considered because they are to be used in various fields. One of the basic means through which the MNP’s are synthesized is Emulsification-Solvent Evaporation method. It is a process that can be productive when it comes to yielding the nanoparticles that have the controllable sizes. The process is modified with the addition of the nano-crystal-line magnetite (Chorny et al. Pg. 4). There is a way through which a small-sized MNP may be synthesized. As an example, when one wants to obtain an albumin-sealed or coated MNP, certain materials such as the ethanolic solution of the ferric chloride and hexahydrate are required. Also on the list are the ferrous chloride tetrahydrate, water and sodium hydroxide (Chorny et al. Pg. 4).
When it comes to the synthesis of the magnetic nanoparticles that are used in the medical imaging applications, there are numerous chemical methods that can be used. Some of the chemical methods would include but not limited to the following: Sol-gel synthesis, microemulsions, hydrochemical reactions, sonothermal reactions, electrospray synthesis and much more (Laurent Pg. 2066). In the synthesis of the superparamagnetic, there is a complex process involved because of the associated cumbersome nature of the process. When using this method, first of all, the experimental conditions are explored after which there is the monodisperse of the population of the magnetic grains that are reduced to the proper sizes. What follows are other series of processes that are used to support the industrial production of the superparamagnetic particles.
Magnetic nanostructures can be formed by various methods. While there is that element of variation in the structures that are being formed, these methods may be used in various ways to formulate the nanostructures. Some of the examples of the methods may encompass the solvo-thermal decomposition, thermal decomposition, spray pyrolysis, decomposition method and much more. There are chemical methods that are being used in the formation of the nanostructures. In the chemical synthesis, there is the microemulsion, the co-precipitation and the thermal decomposition among much more. Thermal decomposition and the hydrothermal approaches have been encouraged by many people because they yield better results when it comes to the sizes of the morphological structures of the end products or the NPs. Another reliable synthesis method is the microwave assisted synthesis.
This is a chemical method where the microwave radiation is utilized in the heating of the materials that have electrical charges. This method is considered to be rich on results because it produces the high reaction rate, there is also the rapid processing, short reaction time and high yields in the form of the product (Khan, K., Rehman, S., Rahman, H. U., & Khan Pg. 5). The other synthesis methodology can be explained as the glass synthesis which is also reliable in the formulations of the NPs. Chemical, magnetic particles have been viewed as a class rich in various features. They have quite remarkable uniformity and the size magnitude that can be found in the arrangements.
Characterization of MNP
The Magnetic Nanoparticles can be studied using various sorts of techniques. The Dynamic Light Scattering is one of those methodologies that can be useful in the study of the MNP. When using the DLS as the methodology, the MNP’s can be characterized using various kinds of features and associated applications (Williams et at. Pg.3). The MNP have a diameter that ranges from 1 to 100 nm; there is a possibility that such nanoparticles can have some advantages because they can be subjected to various environmentally and biomedically related uses where they can solve various problems (Lim et al. Pg. 2). When using the DSL, it is easier to synthesize various sorts of MNP’s, and it is also simpler to match their sizes with the targeted applications or uses. Another advantage that is associated with the use of the DSL is that the MNP’s that are produced in this scenario can be manipulated by the external magnetic forces.
In almost all the cases, the characterization and the analysis of the MNP’s are centered on the diameter of the nanoparticle. It is on this that many other chemical and physical properties that are linked to the MNP are derived (Lim et al. Pg. 2). The MNP’s are known or having the high-surface-to-volume ratio and it is a property or a feature that is considered to be inversely proportional to the diameter of the nanoparticles. The smaller the nanoparticle, the larger the surface area to volume ratio and the higher the probability of its use in the drug delivery. (Lim et al. Pg. 2). There are various sizing techniques which will always yield nanoparticles of varying sizes and therefore such implies that the applications of these particles would be subject to their different sizes. Apart from the DSL, there is the Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, the Thermomagnetic measurement and the Dark-field Microscopy (Lim et al. Pg. 2).
In the characterization of the Magnetic Nanoparticles, there is another format that is known as the Biological Matrices. It is where the nanoparticles get to interact with the biological matrices like the cells and the tissues and sometimes the whole o the organism. When using this kind of characterization, the MNPs can be utilized in the vivo or in the vitro as the MRI agents and sometimes as the cell sorting materials and in some cases the components of some therapies that are used to rectify some medical problems(Snyder et al. 2). In some cases, the MNP’s have been found to be naturally occurring in some living things such as the vertebrates like the Salmon, Pigeons and even humans. Teeth and brain materials have formed some reservoir or the MNP’s (Hurley et al. Pg. 5). The iron oxides are some of the naturally occurring nanoparticles. Nonetheless, there are other forms that can be described as the engineered forms such as the Cobalt ferrite and the Manganese Oxide.
The use of the DSL is highly considered because it is significant in the process of monitoring the hydrodynamic size and the colloidal stability that is associated with the magnetic nanoparticles. It is combined with the other electron microscopy to give the desired results in the process on the structural information on the MNP’s (Hurley et al. Pg. 5).
Biomedical Application of the MNP and concepts
The Magnetic Nanoparticles are viewed with lots of importance because they have various values that have been assigned to them. With the emergence of the nanotechnology, there are increased applications of the MNP’s, and this has also led to the industrial production of the MNP’s. The MNP’s have various kinds of magnetic features, and this has led to the development of various forms of medical applications. The most notable magnetic feature has been the reaction to a magnetic force (Ito et al. Pg. 2). As a result of this feature, which is associated with the nanoparticles, other applications such as the drug targeting that includes the bioseparation and even the cell sorting have been possible.
In the recent findings, researchers have discovered that the MNP’s can be put into proper use when they have the ability to be used as the agents of the magnetic resonance imaging and the heating mediators which are used in the treatment of various cancers. In the biomedical field, there are the magnetic nanoparticles that are used in initiating the treatment process. A good example is the Magnetic Cationic Liposomes which are magnetic nanoparticles that can be used in carrying the magnetite nanoparticles into the cells. The secret behind this process is that the MNP’s are positively charged, and therefore, they readily interact with the negatively charged surfaces found in the cells (Ito et al. Pg. 2).
Some of the medical applications of the MNP’s that have been invented do vary because of the nanostructures. There is a therapeutic application of the coated magnetic nanoparticles. The treatment that is associated with it is known as the Chemotherapeutic Drug Delivery that is used to clear the tumors in the cancer treatment. In this scenario, the nanoparticles that are coated with the required drug can be injected through the intravenous method, after which they are transported to the sites where there are tumors, and another technique that is known as the Magnetic Field Gradient is used to ensure that they are retained in such sites to ensure treatment (Vatta et al. Pg. 1795). Another treatment is found in the hyperthermia where the organs or the tissues are heated to higher temperatures so that the cancerous cells killed through a process known as necrosis. The superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be used as the involved agents in the MRI which is considered useful in the diagnostic applications (Vatta et al. Pg. 1795).
Another concept that exists in the treatment of the cancers using the MNP is known as the thermal therapy which is said to be having other numerous advantages. This method can be categorized into two, namely: the Cool or the heat-based techniques. Cryosurgery as an example is a cold-based surgical process that relies on the extremely low temperatures to kill the cancerous cells that may be found in the liver, prostrate and much more (Gobbo et. Pg. 2). Chemotherapy also involves the use of wide range types of drugs that require that many types of drugs have to be tested. Chemotherapy Drug Testing is a process where the drug is concentrated in the tumor region as the other sections are kept safe to prevent any potential infections. This is done using the MNP’s because of the nanostructure benefits (Kashmiri Pg.4).
According to the findings of the study, it is evident that the medical field has relied on the use of the MNP’s in the treatment of cancers. The use of the MNP has necessitated the massive industrial production of the MNPs that are suited for various kinds of purposes. However, there are other uses apart from the biomedical applications, and such are found in other fields such as engineering. It can be easier to predict that the future of cancer treatment and alleviation is somewhat dependent on the nanotechnology, given that various treatment methods are supported by the magnetic nanostructures.
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