For a society to be considered developed, numerous factors have to be considered to for it to reach a certain level known as civilization. The various elements that are considered for the society to be considered civilized entail the presence of towns which plays a major role in the civilization process. The presence of towns in most instances creates demand pull economy, encouraging the high demand for food production to cater for the urban dwellers. Enough food production will encourage the minority in towns to engage in specialized professions such embroidery, artwork, blacksmith, construction, production of weaponry and the general administration that brings law and order.
For the efficient development of civilization, there must be a foundation in the agriculture sector to jump-start other developments and innovations. More so, there should be a rudimentary and functional civil service. For the best function of the civil service there is need for the development of a writing system that usual comes in handy in the functioning of civic administration and documentation. A writing system has become a very indispensable tool in the many developments and evolution of earliest civilization such as Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and china. Geography has played as the most important determining factor in the development of the earliest civilizations of the world. In Egypt the strategic location of the river Nile in the plain encouraged irrigation through the creation of dykes and shadoofs. In Mesopotamia the presence of the two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris provided enough water to support irrigation that enabled the success of an ample agriculture system.
Mesopotamia and China
What historians have popularly referred to Mesopotamia lies squarely in what is present day Iraq. It is the region lying between the two rivers, Tigris and Euphrates. The word Mesopotamia was coined from a Greek term that means between two rivers. The ancient inhabitant of this region had no idea of this name. The region was divided into two – in the north we had the Akhad people while in the south we had Sumer people. Over the years, these two communities came together and formed the most ancient a successful Babylonian kingdom.
The climate of the region was generally dry with heavy and dangerous rains that came occasionally. The region was devoid of any metals or metallic materials. In topography, the region was flat. One of the advantages of this place was that, it was endowed with a lot of water all the year round that came from these two rivers. The fact that the region was very flat facilitated the use of irrigation as water flowed easily in the fields. The absence of metals and rocks was compensated with a large deposit of clay that was used for building. The land between the two rivers was also fertile which made the production of food to be successful. One of the disadvantages of this place was that there were frequent floods which would carry a way almost all the crops in the field. In the years of civilization, the people became more organized in the flood controls hence making them to produce surplus food all the year round. The resultant production of enough food resulted in people to engage in other forms of social life. There was the emergence of urban centers such Ur, where people lived close to each other. The living of people close to each other enhanced the generation of ideas such as the need for a religion, administration and the consequential rule. The area had no secure boundaries; this enabled the spread and interactions of the civilization to other parts of the Asian continent. In china, early civilization began with the Yin dynasty. It was founded on agriculture and hunting and gathering. Chinese civilization was hastened by presence of metallic materials. This has been evidenced in the many archeological artifacts in the use of bronze.
Egypt and India
The early civilization in Egypt thrived along the river Nile, which is one of the longest rivers in the world. Egypt civilization is considered one of the longest civilizations in the world. Geographically, the term Egypt refers to the region located in the Nile delta where the ancient civilization in Africa began. In terms of culture it best refers to the way of life the Egyptians lived, from how they worshiped, entertained each other, the way they viewed the world, how they ran their administration, and lastly how they related to other communities. The Nile is the major focus in the civilization of Egypt. It flows from the highlands of what is currently East Africa, Lake Victoria. The Nile occasionally floods in the year when there are heavy rains in East Africa. Egypt is also endowed with enough sun that enabled it to sustain most of it agriculture with enough water from the Nile. This factor enabled a flourishing agriculture. The region was also well protected from intruders. The Nile acted as a barrier from the desert, it was also used as a water way. In the north the sea was also a barrier, more over the presence of Nile cataracts in the south prevented the invasion of hostile tribes.
India’s fertile land provided a good ground for the development of agriculture. India is considered one of the countries in the world that has been held together by it culture over a long period. The presence of the many gods and the unitary way of life provided the fodder for early civilization in India. Art of medicine has been one of the advantages the Indians has created and developed. A healthy and well-fed society made it possible for the Indian society to develop.
Goldenweiser, Alexander. Early civilization; an introduction to anthropology. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1922.
Piggott, Stuart, and Grahame Clark. The dawn of civilization: the first world survey of human cultures in early times. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.
Watson, William. Early civilization in China. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.