Sometimes called the "unknown country" (Terra Australis Incognita), Australia is south of Indonesia and New Guinea, between the Pacific and Indian oceans. This magnificent continent has long been unknown. Even when detected, many years it was necessary to fully disclose. Many people thought that it was under the veil of magic and they were afraid to explore.
The first people who settled in Australia were the ancestors of today's Aborigines. They arrived in this country about 40,000 years ago by swimming shallow seas that were later separated Australia from Asia. As the sea level rose, they retreated into the interior, and the axes are set foot trees to shelter built of wood and bark.
The natives of Australia are divided into hundreds of tribes, said about 600 languages. There used to be much more than it is today, many have disappeared or been assimilated into modern Australian society. Each tribe spoke their own language and various local groups are likely to develop specific dialects. The natives were organized by small family groups or gangs.
Each had a leader, usually the older more experienced man. Their social family consisted of a father and his father often than his brother or brothers, they are in their kinship system, also called the 'father father ', his wife or a woman, father, and perhaps his brothers (they are uncles). Father in their terminology is often called the 'father of the child. "The leader of this group decides where and when to set up camp and move on, and in which direction. Leaders should have a good knowledge of the tribal territory, where there is water, where and when you can catch or find food. Youth has been subjected initiations, often very demanding operations such as clitoridectomy, and even cutting off a testicle. All their tribes except the tribe had Bad totemic clans. Clans were divided within two marriage classes.
In the 17th century Spanish navigator Luis Vaez de Torres and Willem Jansz explored the islands in Asia and the Pacific. There was an unscheduled landing because the ships off course. Year 1642-43. Dutchman Abel Tasman sailed around Australia, and he did not see island at all. He agreed to the island, which he called Van Diemen country, which is now called Tasmania. 1770th British explorer Captain James Cook sailed into a bay in the southeast of Australia. This place is called Botany and the entire east coast of Australia by the British ownership. Joseph Banks, a British naturalist, sketched and collected hundreds of plants that Europeans have not hitherto seen. Year 1787th British ships to Australia decided to translate the prisoners. The first group of 759 prisoners arrived in Botany Bay 1788th year. Convicts built a village not far from Sydney to Port Jackson Cova. Transport prisoners ended in 1868th year.
The first fleet of 8 ships with a convict arrived in Botany Bay 18th January 1788th all of them, like the governor, Captain Arthur Phillip, Captain Cook took note of the location they should expect a beautiful harbor surrounded by fertile pastures. But instead, they saw only the streaked eucalyptus bushes that stretched toward the horizon. In the first years of harvest were gender and there was little food. Year 1790th came more prisoners, of who half were too sick to work. In order to mitigate the increasing gloom convict, Phillip is their reward good behavior began to land. In the 1791st one farmer said it was self-sufficient and Phillip gave him more land. At the end of the 1792nd population has increased to about 3500th that same year, 62 people received land from Phillip and subsequently processed bit 700 acres. It seemed that the young colonies live
Some 90 years after Cook's arrival, along the coast of the main village was located, and he went inside of a very few people. First the researchers draw a map of the Murray and Darling rivers in the southeast, while the others tried to get to the center of Australia. Irishman Robert O'Hara Burke and William J. Englishman Wills completed the journey to the 1861st year, but died on the way back. In July the 1862nd their opponent was John Stuart completed a similar journey, not knowing that he was in fact defeated Burke and Wills. He died in the attempt. However, the discovery of gold caused a real invasion of a fortune hunter. 1860th with 200,000 population has grown to 1.1 million, while Australia was excavated 39 percent of the world's total excavation. Colonies were advancing rapidly in the late 19th century. Rapidly developing industry, especially in areas such as construction and manufacturing, social policy measures were very advanced: for example, one of the first objectives was education available to all, in many areas are organized trade associations.
During the entire 19th century, parts of Australia ruled the lawless. One of the most famous outlaws, bandits or was Ned Kelly (1855-80), who led a gang of thieves. This gang 1878th the three policemen were killed and robbed several banks and then Kelly was arrested and hanged in Melbourne 1880th year. His fight against the government has made Kelly folk hero.
Impact on Aboriginal civilization
Arrival of the first fleet left a strong imprint on the Aborigines. In the beginning there were no conflicts. Traditional Aboriginal people believed Bletchley spirits, even to their ancestors and they were ready to peace. Also, newly arrived fleet wanted a friendly relationship.
However, cultural and civilizational differences have made the gap between them. After the incident on the beach, when Captain Arthur Phillip lends a hand in friendship, Aborigines took it as aggression and wounding the captain's shoulder.
After that, the Aborigines began to hunt English cattle, because this is not normal. The English took it as an attack, and the enmity between them widening.
Also, Aboriginal people did not understand why the `strange 'white people can share country.
In Aboriginal culture, the very identity is their sense of belonging and attachment to their home. When they were expelled from the coastal parts of the mainland, where the food was plentiful, they began to feel a great rivalry with entrants white people.Also, what is the most Aborigines eradicate the disease by the English brought with them. Casually diseases such as influenza, measles and chickenpox have led to an epidemic, to which the natives had no immunity. So they completely eradicated Tasmanian Aborigines, and are considered to be a period of 1788th to 1900th missing almost 90% of this civilization.
Alcohol and white flour are one of the foods deliberately introduced into civilization of natives, because they are not used white flour, and alcohol abuse has become widespread.
Then the Europeans assimilated children of natives, under the pretext that they are not able to keep as a people. Whites have them so that they are trained the soldiers and officials, which led to loss of culture, language and tradition, which is kept by the natives for centuries.
Government from 1788- 1810
Governor Phillip (1788-92) was succeeded as governor by Governor John Hunter, 1795-1800, King Philip Gidlei, 1800-06, and William Bligh, 1806-08.
Governor rights given to them under the act of the British Parliament in 1787th .
Arrival of the first free settlers, five individual men and two families in 1793 was the first sign of the need for change. Number of settlers and traders continued to grow. And, as the size and importance of a free citizenry increased compared to that of the convicts and the military, so inevitably would also increase the demand for democratic change.
While governors kept virtually absolute power, high efficient government in the settlement lay in the military, especially officers of the NSW Corps built specifically for duty in the colony from 1790 on.
Governor William Bligh
Military forces stationed in New South Wales from 1792-1810 was specially built unit, New South Wales Corps. Since 1806, the Governor of New South Wales was Captain (later Admiral) William Bligh. Blight, talented and strong naval officer, was somewhat was hated by the people because of the riots that took place on his boat. He admitted that to the officers, particularly the New South Wales 'Rum' Corps had entrenched forces act in their own interest. Specifically, Blight saw that the small farmers who are not military discriminated against the Corps.
Blight as he tried to defend its legitimate authority Corps officers clashed with the governor on several issues. On 26 January 1808, troops led by LT-saddle. George Johnston, was arrested Bligh and took control of the colony. Bligh number of fans were arrested, some spending the next two years to convict working groups.
This was Australia's only military coup. New South Wales Corps remained under control until 1810, when the Britain sent a new Macquarie with his regiment, the dismantling of New South Vales Corps.
Governor Lachlan Macquarie
Lachlan Macquarie was a man who was remembered for how he wanted to build a better society than the one from which he came.
He encouraged research and 1813th sent his men behind the Blue Mountains.
It was a turning point for the further development of Australia. He believed that when a man has served a sentence, the same as all other free people. Thus, the ex-prisoner, Francis Greenway, was working as an architect. He has designed many landmarks Sidney, like: Hyde Park Barracks, St James Church and the Lighthouse Port Jackson.
Macquarie was the first governor who has called officially named Australia, 1817th, respecting the name given by Matthew Flinders. He made official Australia’s Day, making it a national holiday. In addition, he secures many hospitals, courtrooms and brought law and order in the new colony. Also, most important of all, he stood for the rights of the natives and of those who do not have freedom of thought and speech. `This is what has been remembered by the Aborigines.
During the time, it was created an almost perfect legal and democratic system, and despite the fact that Australia was very important to England, natives are not in a good condition. From the very beginning, due to disagreements civilization, this native civilization has experienced various atrocities. At the present time, we are still trying to fight for their rights.
Australian National Report on the social and economic conditions in which these indigenous communities are showing significant deterioration. The children of Aboriginal families are six times as likely to experience some form of child abuse. Australian Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd was stunned by the report which was rated devastating and unacceptable situation. A member of the Aborigines, unlike other Australian population, as many as thirteen times is more likely to end up in jail. The attempt to justify such poor performance, the 50 benchmarks set by which the Aborigines could be a negative situation compared to other Australians, however, for a high 80 percent found no justification. In the areas of literacy and knowledge of basic math, Aborigines were not had excuses for low scores. However, in the sphere of employment found a high rate of discrimination.
Throughout history we learn. Any nation or civilization has its own traditions, language and culture. It is a great pity to destroy other people's tradition. It is a huge shame to lose the culture of a people. Because, ultimately, culture and tradition is what brings people together and what makes us different from animals.
We have two choices, to learn from history and not repeat mistakes of our ancestors. It is not said in vain that history is the mother of life.
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