5. Supplementing rice, cereal, wheat flour (bread), and noodles with folic acid has been responsible for the 25 percent drop in neural tube defects.
12. The minerals on the provided label are sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, copper, and manganese.
13. Highest DV is Manganese at 35%. This mineral is a type of trace mineral.
17. Magnesium affects the metabolism of potassium, calcium and vitamin D.
20. a) Iodine. The thyroid gland produces hormones important for metabolic processes. b) When a nuclear plant in Japan released radioactive forms of iodine, people took iodine pills to saturate their thyroids with the non-radioactive form to avoid absorption of the radioactivity. c) NE Ohio has low iodine concentration in the soil, which increased the incidence of goiter. Iodine-fortified salt has decreased the incidence of goiter.
22. Hard water contains dissolved minerals such as calcium and magnesium. Hard water can aid health because toxic metal ions like lead and copper are less soluble in hard water. So persons drinking hard water are exposed to less toxic metal ions.
24. “DASH” stands for dietary approaches for stopping hypertension (high blood pressure). The DASH diet is high in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, fiber, and low to moderate in fat, with an emphasis on lean protein. It is also low in sodium.
26. An antioxidant is a molecule that stops oxygen from interacting with other molecules and forming a “free radical,” a type of chemical that can damage healthy cells. Cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and atherosclerosis (clogging of the arteries) are three diseases thought to be linked to the damaging effects of free radicals. Beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C are the most studied dietary antioxidants.