Work and development assessment during strategic change can be defined as an evaluation of effectiveness and skills of leaders as managers. Development assessment provides a feedback system from direct reports of performance analysis for development of specific leadership skills based on performance feedback. The key areas in this study are where, how and when set leadership strategies are developed, the criteria for an effective management strategy, the manner in which management strategies are developed, and implemented. In reference to Brian and George (2007) performance management can be defined as a continuous cycle that commences with conscription decision and entails setting a performance criteria, action planning, monitoring and assessment, feedback as well as, learning and development activities. Brian and George (2007) state that effective performance management; improves communication and employment relationships, contributes positively to an institutions bottom line, and aligns individual and team performance with the institutional goals, objectives and values. In reference to David et al. (2004) timely and reliable monitoring and evaluation eases how managers identify trends, areas of improvement and strengths in the organization.
According to David et al. (2004) the fundamental role played by teams in various professions can not be underestimated. Furthermore, the ability of leadership and management in creating strong within an organization is fundamental. In this regard, this paper will define team and teamwork, establish characteristics of a team, analyse steps in team development and establish advantages of teamwork. In addition, the paper will analyse the role of motivation and teamwork in teamwork. Challenges faced by modern manager revolve around, quality, efficiency, customer knowledge, innovation and service provision. Brian and George (2007) state that managers are under pressure to maintain quality standards and performance.
Definition and characteristics of a team and teamwork
David et al. (2004) defines a team as a group of people drawn from various disciplines, functions and department sharing responsibilities and working together towards achieving set goals, objectives and outcomes. Montes et al (2005) further indicates that teams play a critical role in improving performances, changing things, and outperforming individuals and groups in an institutional set up. In keeping with Hamid (2011) teams can be interchanged with groups to boost their impacts; as such, there is no need of extricating the definition of a group and that of a team. Montes et al (2005) raises essential questions about the teamwork. Some examples include; are the teams self managed or directed? Are they natural work group? Or are they focussed on one task and how big the team should be? Thompson and Heron (2005) conclude that teams are more helpful when they own their assignment and apply their skills and knowledge to yield solutions. On the contrary, when individuals are grouped together under one manager, this results to time wastage.
Montes et al (2005) establishes that teams must share collective goals and objectives; he further asserts that the individuals making a team must play their different roles towards achieving these predetermined goals and objectives. According to Hamid (2011) members on a team must not be overconfident with their roles in the team, since this may endanger the spirit and accomplishment of the group. In keeping with David et al. (2004), there exists a distinction between groups and teams, in that for teams are made up of individuals with a shared goal, and all the team members work together realise that goal. David et al. (2004) also establishes that for the team to grow, it must be nurtured to enhance its growth to the maturity level. Arguably, in order to realise this, the team must have a focussed and supportive leader. The leadership strategy prompts changes that aim at achieving competitive advantage through the efforts of the subordinates. Leadership processes take place with the context in the internal and external environment in an organization. In reference to Hamid (2011) leadership process acts as a mindset which can lead to strategic action and reactions. Hamid (2011) further indicates that, it does this in its entirety or through a specific human resource strategy.
According to David et al. (2004), teams require a good leader who plainly value and comprehends the team dynamics and the manner in which the team’s performance and accomplishments can be boosted. Montes et al (2005) illustrates this by using examples of management team. Management team is where departmental heads joint either monthly or fortnightly to assess the progress of various departments within an organization. Montes et al (2005) notes that even as this being an ideal thing to engage in, it seldom represents a true team. Montes et al (2005) establishes that a successful team requires an effective working correlation with its members and the team environment to ensure that it undertakes its duties successfully. In addition, the report on work and development assessment during strategic change should comprise of constructive intercommunication, assistance and association within the members to enhance team impact and success of the assignment that the team is undertaking. Hamid (2011) affirms that even with numerous research and publications on teamwork and development assessment during strategic change continuous to be a big challenge to many leaders.
Developing a Team during strategic change
According to Crichton (2005), every team must engage in different stages of team development. As established by According to Crichton (2005), these stages are team formation, team norming, team storming team results and team performance. According to Crichton (2005), further states that team formation entails bringing together individuals from different backgrounds under common goal or objective. The moment a team is formed, the storming stage entails setting out the roles and responsibilities of every team member. In keeping with According to Crichton (2005), the norming stage takes control of conflict resolution and management. According to Crichton (2005), also elaborates that this stage anticipates various concerns that might emerge in a team and how to effectively address the situations. Further more, the norming phase sets out a working procedure that must be followed by all the group members. Notably, after setting out the three phases, According to Crichton (2005), establishes that the team embarks on the project development which involves engaging in different activities in line with the organizations goals. Finally is the result stage where the effectiveness and efficacy of the team is analyzed and predetermined goals or objective of the project delivered.
According to Thompson and Heron (2005) there is a need for balancing team members. He notes that teams made up of only experts are more likely to fail; thus the need to balance individuals with different characters traits and capabilities to create a balance within the group. Additionally, Thompson and Heron (2005), establishes that having attuned team members who can engage each other harmonize their traits and address each other’s weaknesses and strengths can play a central function in team development. The roles within a team that are assessed during strategic change are;
- The first role is that of organization’s workers. These members are conformist, very hardworking, rational and well organised in their work. Nonetheless, their disadvantage is that they lack flexibility and inventiveness in their operations, and to some extent they do not care about other team member’s needs.
- The second role is that of a chairman, who composure and confidence in his attitude and operations. They treat team members equally with a broad mind. The weakness of this category of team members is that they are not creative in their work.
- Shapers form the third category of team members. These members have a strong and pulsating temperament, and can confront any incompetence and contentment within the team. As such, they shape the focus of the team. However, the shapers portray ease of anger and quick annoyance when handling work issues.
- Plants are the fourth category of team members. These members are radical, serious and eccentric in their thoughts and actions. In addition, they portray acumen, creativity and wisdom in their judgement. Nevertheless, these individuals usually breach the set protocol in their teams.
- The fifth category is resource investigators, who are generally inquisitive and good communicators within the team. These individuals have strong intercommunication and interpersonal skills and can easily create work networks.
- Another strong point with these individuals is their ability to handle different hurdles in their decision and working process. However, these individuals also portray little concentration and high distraction.
- The monitor and evaluator individuals are outgoing, impassive and are quick in judging in their team. They are able to assess and criticise the group’s performance. However, they are poor in motivating themselves and others within their team. The team workers are merry individuals, social and very amusing. They inspire the other team members towards achieving greater heights and utilising their full potential. However, these individuals are poor in decision making process when faced with a dilemma.
- Lastly, the complete finishers are individuals, who portray high organization level and are very concerned with the team’s affairs. In addition, these individuals are uncompromising in their work. Unfortunately, they are not very flexible to adjust to changing times.
According to Lorraine and Sonya (2012), it is essential for leaders to distinguish their subordinates strengths and weaknesses, and to certify a balance in expertise and abilities. Lorraine and Sonya (2012) further argues that it is important to ensure that these skills and knowledge are not duplicated to capitalize on the output of the group. As elaborated by Lorraine and Sonya (2012) the differences in a group and formation of room for individuals to develop and excel ultimately bring gleaming results. In the current dynamic working environment, there is a need for support and empowerment of individuals within a group to ensure better performance and results (Lorraine & Sonya, 2012).
Leadership and team motivation during strategic change
As established by Thompson and Heron (2005) motivation is the act of influencing and inspiring people to act in a particular pre-established way. In addition, motivation is in the heart of leadership. Referring to Thompson and Heron (2005), leadership establishes and sets the pace where the team aims to be, while as, motivation ascertains that individuals are in fact inspired to act in that particular way. In keeping with Thompson and Heron (2005) motivation ensures that individuals exploit their maximum potential positively in realising a pre-determined goal. Thompson and Heron (2005) also indicate that open attempt distinguishes between mere job and great job. In this regard, Thompson and Heron (2005) affirm that motivation and leadership work hand in hand, and leaders have a role in motivating their team to achieve greater heights.
According to Lorraine and Sonya (2012), the contemporary leadership differ from traditional leadership, since most people are more informed and knowledgeable, and they cannot be easily swayed, commanded and exploited as it used to be in the past. Lorraine and Sonya (2012) also note that effective leaders must possess general and specific qualities to manage a team. In addition, leaders must portray empathy and benevolence qualities among their work groups, and should be the role model and pacesetter within their work group (Lorraine & Sonya, 2012). In addition, leaders should have qualities such as maturity, interpersonal relationship skills and positive attitude towards his team members, to motivate the team’s growth and development (Tang et al. 2013).
Advantages of teamwork during strategic change
According to Boxall and Purcell (2003), teamwork enhances innovation, specialization, better coordination and individual growth within the team. Teams also helps in increased support among the members creating a family-like atmosphere. Boxall and Purcell (2003) also establish that teamwork enhances support within and outside the project’s or assignment’s expectations. Team members always support each other during their personal challenges and celebrate each other’s accomplishment. This helps in not only career but also personal development. In reference to Boxall and Purcell (2003) teamwork aids in the project ownership since the inputs reflects those of individuals in that group. In addition, teams are better positioned to address the dynamics of the contemporary markets demands, as opposed to the conventional group arrangement. Teams are beneficial in an organisation in that they can react quickly to a given challenge or opportunity within the market as opposed to just a group of individuals.
Leadership and teamwork assessment during strategic change
Tang et al. (2013), leadership is the process of bringing about movement and change in an organization. The subject matter of leadership is timeless, and it sets out the pace of where the team should head to and motivates them team to conquer all hurdles that may come along the way (Tang et al. 2013). According to Tang et al. (2013) leadership is essential to the success of all organisations. Leadership plays three vital roles in an organization. These include establishing the organization’s direction, creating the focus of team members towards moving in the established direction. Leadership also motivates and inspires individuals to move towards moving in a certain direction oblivious of the hurdles that may arise. Tang et al. (2013) note that there exists distributed and servant leadership. Distributed leadership is flexible, distributes roles and responsibilities and exploit proficiency, while servant leadership is service and support oriented, and it ensures that team works in harmony for the development of the organization.
Tang et al. (2013) argue that, leadership is critical in instigating and managing change in an organisation. In addition, leadership is elemental in persuading the team using various approaches. In his support, Tang et al. (2013) establishes that leadership approach may acquiesce success or failure in an establishment. Lorraine and Sonya (2012) stated that styles vary from highest control and lowest freedom in a group to lowest control and maximum freedom.
In his analysis Casper (2007) indicates that teams can take diverse shapes and numbers to attend to a given challenge. Nonetheless, all teams must have some common aspects, such as set objectives or goals (Casper, 2007). In addition, information sharing, respect of each other’s ideas and opinions and mutual respect must be observed in any team. The key goal of management strategy is to meet both business and physical needs, and it is used in a manner that it provides a sense of direction and purpose. Casper (2007) notes that they are no dominant strategies it is the realization of the laid strategies that count. In keeping with Boxall and Purcell (2003), different companies have different strategies. There are two types of leadership strategies i.e. the general strategy and the specific strategies. The general strategies focus on high working capacity while the latter focus on different aspects of leadership like learning, reward and development. Conclusively, team and team work is a core component of any successful organization. They not only ensure that things are turned around but also ensure that the organization’s performance is improved and it outperforms any individuals’ effort. The process of team development is characterised by several stages and phases, notably the formation, storming, norming, team performance and results phases. Teams have different advantages. These include enhancing specialization, better coordination, individual growth and better innovation and improving the group’s performance. Leadership plays a pivotal role in team work and team development. Leadership, which is defined as the process of creating movement and impacting change in an organization, sets out the pace on how the group should move to realise maximum impacts and benefits. In addition, leadership gives directions and focus to the group. Motivation, which is the process of influencing and inspiring people to act in a particular way, is another important consideration in teamwork. Motivation enhances maximum inputs and realisation of more impacts. Leadership and motivation are inseparable in a team.
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