The current society is oriented to work, in a capitalism kind of state. After attaining maturity, adults are expected to engage in some form of productive work. What we do affects who we are and what we go on to become later on in life. The relationship between an individual and his working environment is quite important and can determine by the health care of the individual. Work place adjustment is guided by research programs in vocational psychology.
According to Dawis & Lofquist (1984), work is a concept between an individual and the work place. The interaction between the two is very important as it determines what a good working relationship is and the ties that lie between the individual and the working environment. The work place demands accomplishment of some tasks by the individual, who should be armed with skills to perform such texts. This includes abilities, knowledge and expertise in handling some specific and professionalism of given tasks to meet the set objectives. In return, the worker or employee requires some form of compensation and remuneration.
Also, requires some set of conditions to be met so as to facilitate the working of the individual. This is in line with a safe and comfortable working environment that is favoring and adaptable. The working environment must adhere to all the required standards such as workers safety in case of emergencies such as fires and hostage situation. Protective clothing and uniforms help to indentify and prevent workers. The working environment and the individual must continue to meet the needs of each other. The extent to which the two satisfy each other’s needs is called correspondence (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Work adjustments require achievement and maintenance of correspondence. This is indicated through satisfaction with ones job and the employer being satisfied with ones job. This results into tenure which is the key to work adjustment. This is showed by the individuals’ personality in the work environment. Personalities and working environments are described in terms of styles and structure variables which are measured on the same scale. The more a person’s abilities in form of attitude, behaviors, knowledge, experience and skills move in line with the job requirements, in a given organization, he will perform satisfactorily (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). Such an employee is more likely to be perceived as a satisfactory employee by the employer.
According to Dawis & Lofquist (1984), reinforcers in forms of rewards and incentives act as motivators to the values an individual brings into the organization in their work. This also influences their perception of whether a job is satisfying or not. Every individual seeks to satisfy some values which include; Achievement, which are conditions that enhance progress and achievement of goals. Others include, comfort, which are stress-free environmental conditions, status- recognition and prestige. Altruism assists in harmony in the work place and assisting other colleagues, while safety values enhance predictability of an organization’s future and stability. Finally, autonomous values foster personal control and initiative, and responsibility.
Correspondence is not always perfect and a conflict arises out of this. One reason that can be used to explain such behavior is wrong career choice or wrong employee choice. Also, stable correspondence may change with time. Individuals can develop their skills such that they exceed their responsibilities or outside the career world. This changes employee inputs into the company which can also be changed by alterations in the rewarding system. Individuals’ tolerance to lack of correspondence depends on their flexibility between their abilities, values, and requirements and reinforces. Organizational culture and personality traits as well as availability of alternative will influence workers’ flexibility (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Adjustments are made when there seems no amount of flexibility can work. This is in line with lack of correspondence. Active adjustments involved changing of work place environment by the individual. This can be through change of job contents to reflect on their abilities and alteration of job behaviors (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). Change of reinforcements by looking for different rewards can also work, for example, improved working conditions and more responsibility. In active adjustments, employees’ abilities are improved upon or changed through training. Values and expectations can be changed similarly.
Reactive adjustments involve persons changing their behavior and priorities in a way that works best for their work values. In a twist, the environment may force an individual to change his or her responsibilities in line with the person’s natural strengths. Lob satisfaction is done through improved rewarding. Also, in this context, persistence; defined as to length at which individuals seeking to change and adjust until they can go no further. If no more adjustments can be, the individual is fired or quits the job (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
In conclusion, how a person relates with the work place is dependent on him and the working environment. Cordial relations between the two and the need to satisfy each other’s needs lead to continued relationship through each adjusting to the needs and demands of the other. Work adjustments can make working fun and satisfying or stressful. It depends on the prevailing conditions and nature of adjustments adopted by both.
Dawes, R.V. & Lofquist, L.H. (1984) A Psychological Theory of Work Adjustment. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.