Modernity is closely linked to democratic models and ambitions. It reconfigures the connection of individuals to other persons as well as to their society through promotion of individualism. Enlightenment is among the turning points in the European’s history periodization. Human reason is an important tool in modernizing institutions and beliefs issue (Issue 18 v1 pp 315). The Isles of Britain had grown confidence in information on the basis of sensation. Britain received a head start on enlightenment due to the fact that they relied on contact with the world for information. Through this, they focused on intellectual thought. Achievement of modernity was greatly contributed by a shift of attention to focus on the future as well as by the will to make a better future. This created a belief in advancement. This has as well been attained because of scientists and philosophers’ achievements, which made man, have faith that he had the power to acquire knowledge. It boosted action in various fields like technology, exploration, social science, manufactures as well as legal reform (Issue 18 v1 pp 316).
An important aspect of the birth of modernity was the change of mind regarding economics. Despite being regarded as evil by the churches, economy shifted from moral to political economy that laid claim to a scientific appreciation of creation of wealth and satisfaction of customers (Issue 18 v1 pp 318). Science too played key roles towards modernity, for instance, the spread of science culture because of Isaac Newton’s achievement. There was the formation of scientific associations and science opened doors for farming. Farming was considered as a type of manufacture. Manufacturing paved ways for technology through the creation of machines like water wheel (Issue 18 v1 pp 320).
Presentism is a form of historical or literary analysis in which contemporary ideas and viewpoints are introduced anachronistically into past versions or depictions. A number of modern historians attempt to keep away from presentism in their work since they have belief that it makes a deformed understanding of their matter of subject. For example, even though belief in witchcraft and witches existed in early days of history, the harassment of such suspects attained its climax in the early modern time. Relevant to the issue of witchcraft is that the large percentage of those who participated in this activity was women. This practice has been translated as a result of growth of nation-state, upheaval in the religion, among other reasons, by historians. The number of women involved in witch-craze shifted in the sixteenth century, and women took occupations like midwives, healers and counselors using magical techniques (1v Issue 16 pp276).
In a normal environment, many factors contribute to the success, failure or occurrence of events. This is better explained by causality and is clearly portrayed by historian Bruce Swanson when he tries to give the possible reasons as to why China retreated from the excellence of maritime. He explains that among many factors that led to this retreat was the efforts of maritime belied the international view that China had worked for in many years. His argument is unlike that of his counterpart, Nicholas Kristof, who believes that this was the sole reason behind the retreat (1v Issue 12 pp229).