Identify what methodology (ies) are being employed in this analysis of Leonardo da Vinci's "La Joconde," and explain why/how. What questions might other methodology (ies) ask about this particular work?
Formalism: - a formal approach has been taken towards this image. Several physical properties have been engaged so as to disclose the function and meaning of this work. Also, intrinsic beauty is the main idea behind this work. The image has a slight smile (slight lips opening at the mouth corners) which was considered as a sign of elegance. A delicate atmosphere dominates this image with perfect interaction of light and shade, gradual dissolution of forms, and the sense of uncertainty in the time of the day.
Semiotics: - the main concern in this image is the meaning. Various objects within the image reveal significant meanings as described here in. The clothing is very important as it reveals the social status. We can say that the clothes in this image reflect wealth. Major emphasis has been laid on the face and not the whole body. From the face, several meanings can be derived. The smoothness and brightness of the face is a significant sign of a high social class.
Marxism: - a Marxist approach has also been taken towards this image. The image directly gives a clue on the economic system. The sign of wealth which is depicted in the image reveals the economic class represented.
Feminist: - a feminist approach has been employed here to a great deal. Gender has plaid a major role in the iconography and reception of this image. The image is against the usual representation of females as passive figures. From the image, viewers can learn to appreciate various aspects of women, like beauty and gentility.
Critical Cultural Studies: AHIS 102 Intro to Visual Culture I, Holly Ward
Walter, Pater and Matt Beaumont. Studies in the History of the Renaissance, Oxford University Press, 2010, p.xvi.
Interpret the sign in the picture, “The Upside-Down horse in the Axial Gallery” in relation to the signs surrounding it, and in relation to its particular location in time and space. Try to incorporate the following vocabulary in your response: semiotics, sign, signifier, signified, diachronic, synchronic, arbitrary, langue, parole. (3 resources, including the main attached file)
By keenly observing the image, we realize that the Upside-down Horse is properly wrapped around a false pillar. There are several cavities to the left, and to the opposite there is a horizontal groove which underlies the red panel. The narrowness of this locality and the large dimensions of the figures reveal a dense concentration of animals. The walls contain the Red Panel to the right and the Upside-down Horse.
Several figures and can be seen in the panel, four of which are animals and are all horses. Two of the horses are complete and at the same level; the Upside-down Horse, and the yellow horse. The third one is higher up and limited to the back while the head of the fourth horse is on the right of the Upside-down Horse. There is a black line which may be the end of the leg at the top right.
Several signs also exist some of which are: ten red dots horizontally aligned, red marks in triangular form, and red signs above the top horse. There is a tree like sign which is quite large and it partially obligates the two horses on the left. Also, there are several black dots, both in groups and isolated, all over the picture.
Spraying technique has been used to illustrate the animals. From the reoccurrence of the graphic conventions, we can say that one person was responsible for the work. The neck of the horse has been made to appear tense by the use of the arch of the mane and the black line.
The use of colors is rare in this picture. The background is therefore not portrayed properly and there is no additional hue. Also, the color distribution is stratigraphic: yellow for the lower body parts and the two legs; violet-red for the back and the neck; and black for the upper line (uninterrupted)
The Upside-down Horse has retained its proportion regardless of the uneven support and its nature of animation. This proportion is similar to the other horses.
This figure is quite unique in its animation. The body position describes a fall can be interpreted to mean an accident.
Susan L. Feagin (eds). Global Theories of the Arts and Aesthetics, 2007,
According to Marx, politics, ideas, morals, religion, culture, among others emerges from economic relations and material conditions. The creation of art pieces is from the communication and speaking desire and not from biological response.
Different classes are in existence here; the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. Diana Augaitis is a bourgeoisie as she gives service to Rebecca Belmore, the proletariat. It is usual to consider the bourgeoisies as capitalist. Instead of profiting the workers, the owner of Pari Nadimi Gallery only profits himself and thus considered a capitalist.
In the performance during the installation of Rebecca Belmore's worth, the bed worth and spread were portrayed as part of the master bedroom. The bed here represents part of the base, which is the chance for economic struggle. This is mandatory for any material existence. Iconography in the performance where the bedspread material is of hair implies the struggle with capitalism (industrial capitalism and human struggle). A symbol of scalping could also be drawn from the bedspread scarlet and hair color. This is a real indicator of worth in the battle.
During the performance, there is a representation of Jesus Christ in Rebecca’s t-shirt as she lays in a crucified manner on the bedspread. We can relate this to the sacrifices she makes in her performances. At the same time, we can say that this is a symbol of the superstructure which keeps individuals within the system of capitalist.
Buium, Greg. “Body language - Artist Rebecca Belmore's new Vancouver exhibition showcases her startling work.” CBC News. Last Updated: Tuesday, July 8, 2008.
Jae Emerling. Theory for Art History, 2005, pages 19 & 21.
Compare the perspective in this painting called The Ideal City, with the point of view/perspective used to organize space and time in this landscape by the miniaturist Levni, drawing from the discussion of Time and Space in this week's reading.
In Ottoman Empire around early 18th century, there was a court painter called Levni. Several western influences were brought forward by this painter. In the picture “this landscape” there is a perspective of circumambulatory on the Ottoman mosque. Anyone can see the different sides with mosaic tiles. There is a total exposure of the entire garden and the size of both the animals and people is not proportionate. A nave can clearly be seen and we can therefore assume that this structure is a mosque. The nave is at the top part of the image. We can also see a turbaned man, who is taller than both windows and walls, standing just like the other people in front. Some analysts can emerge with the distort perspective of this image and postulate that it is iconographic of the less importance of the mosque over the members. There is little perspective shading, if any, as depicted by the flat dimensionality.
The Ideal City, on the other hand, has a two century earlier painting than “this landscape” In the Ideal City, proportionate perspective has been employed appropriately. It also incorporates foreshortening, depth of field, and atmospheric perspective. In this image, there is no sign of any human being. The painter Piero della Francesca, employed perfect and accurate use of pleasing lines. There is a pagoda-like structure at the central point and other two square buildings with excellent proportionality. This brings out clear concept of symmetry and geometry.
Susan L. Feagin. Global Theories of the Arts and Aesthetics, 2007, pg 70
Laleh Bakhtiar, Sufi. Expressions of the Mystic, pg 17