[Date (January 1, 2012)]
Deception is defined as a collaborative method between a sender and the receiver to transfer and receive information. Deceptive communication can occur in a range of different settings, in relationships between strangers, friends, partners, family members and can be perpetrated by all age groups (Taylor, Gozna 1). In deception the sender transmits the information purposefully to create a wrong belief in the receiver. Deception can be done for a number of reasons and by various motivations. Depending on the severity of the consequences the lies can be high-stake, medium-stake, and low stake. There are various reasons for deception; for example, lying to hurt someone, lying to avoid hurting someone, lying for our own benefit or sometimes for the benefit of others.
You can qualify the deception when any communication act meets some requirements like, the sender must be aware that the information transmitted is false, or if the sender transmits information on a purpose, or when the receiver convincingly believes that the information the sender transmits is true. Deception has been a part of our life since many generations and the diversity of deception can vary depending on various situations. Deception is very common and usually people deceive not to hurt others, but as a protective measure or to present themselves as being social and make interactions easier. My goal in this paper is to discuss how the deceptive acts are diverse along with some examples.
It is nearly impossible for people to lie, falsify, overstate, or be honest. The people who are extrovert, self-confident, over confident, or good-looking are more likely to lie then the people who have high ethics, depressed, or responsible in their lives. People have several intentions for lying and some lies are compassionate while some lies are wicked. People may lie to avoid any conflicts or punishment, protect themselves from any misery, protect their privacy, benefit the receiver, or to take revenge on someone.
ACT OF SIMULATION
A form of deception where a person constructs information or exaggerates the facts with an intention to deceive others is known as the act of simulation. People engage in the act of simulation and provide information that is not true. For example, when you provide a reason that is invalid to avoid going to a movie with your friends, or tell your friend that you like the new cellphone he or she purchased though you did not like the features of the mobile are acts of simulation. In these examples you know that your responses are not true and you are successful in convincing the listener to believe you. The two kinds of behaviors that let people engage in act of simulation are falsification and exaggeration as discussed below.
Falsification. Falsification is a method of communicating completely false information as if it were true. This behavior needs a strong determination as the person would need to create illusory fact. Falsification is known to be the most common behavior that is used by people to deceive others. To live a lie is to be burdened by one’s lie (Kuran 5). If a person is falsifying information then it must be sustained to avoid embarrassment when others know the truth later. For example, in the movie; My Wife is a Gangster; Shin Eun-kyung has a falsified cover as a home maker in most of the scenes of the movie where in reality she is a gangster.
Exaggeration. Exaggeration is another form of act of simulation in which a person overemphasizes or inflates the facts to impress others. Exaggerating information may help you sometimes to acquire what you want, but in long run if you cannot maintain the added information to your true speech then it can prove harmful. For example, Most of the politicians exaggerate during the canvassing about their plans on development and achievements to impress the voters.
ACT OF DISIMULATION
A form of deception where a person does not provide the complete information while communicating, or provides vague answers to any questions is known as the act of dissimulation. The neglected information that is not provided can change the nature of the information in contrast with complete information. The two kinds of behaviors that let people engage in the act of dissimulation are omission and equivocation as discussed below.
Omission. Omission is a form of deception where a person leaves out a part of significant information that could be important to the listener during communication. People lie because lying pays or at least promises to pay. One may gain something by doing it or one may keep from losing something. Either way the profit motive holds (Sullivan 118). For example, when you apply for a credit card, the sales person may provide its details and lure you into buying the card; however after a year you get to know that you have to pay the annual maintenance fees for the card to continue using it. If the sales person had not omitted the critical information that the card comes with annual maintenance fees, you would choose not to take it.
Equivocation. Equivocation is a form of deception in which a person misleads others by playing with the words or provides confusing answers that portrays false impression. In this form of behavior the listener is in confusion to know if the answer received is correct or incorrect. The person who sends information in fact tries to avoid answering a question. For example, consider the reply given in this question.
Question: Was Billy a good sportsman?
Answer: Well, hmmm that depends on why he is called a good sportsman.
This answer is an equivocal response because it does not say if Billy was a good sportsman, and why he was called a good sportsman is not clear. The answer in this example concludes that Billy was not a good sportsman; but the person who answers does not say this directly. Even silence is in certain cases virtually such a misleading, according to the proverb, “Silence is consent” (Newman 224).
People, we have the power to stop the insidious march of mendacity into our lives. If we are forewarned, we are forearmed and can fight the lies that plague us (Green 5). It is better to say the truth rather than tell a series of lies to hide the first lie. Lying creates a guilt consciousness in us that can lead to unhappiness in our lives. Your mind will not be at peace and the price of your aforesaid lie may lead you to break up the good relationship you had with the other person. The main reason to break a trust in a relationship is caused by a lie. You can get rid of any habit if religiously practiced for 21 days. So let us promise ourselves to get rid of the habit of lying and move towards the path of truth.
Taylor, Rachel., Gozna, Lynsey. Deception: A Young Person’s Life Skill? Psychology Press 1st
Edition, 2011. Print.
Kuran, Timur. Private Truths, Public Lies: The Social Consequences of Preference Falsification.
Harvard University Press, 1997. Print.
Sullivan, Evelin. The Concise Book of Lying. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2001. Print
Newman, John Henry. Apologia Pro Vita Sua. Continuum International Publishing Group, 1946.
Green, Malcom. Book of Lies, Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2005. Print.