Q. 1 Differentiate the concepts of morality and social ethics
Morality refers to a situational context where individuals conform to the set standards by the society that are regarded as best for the welfare of the community at large (Kant YouTube, 2012). These standards are based on tradition, and in some cases, they are just arbitrary. However, it is important to note that a person’s views on morality changes depending on the situational factor, for instance, murder is considered immoral in the everyday normal life. However, during times of war, killing an opponent in the battlefield is permissible. Therefore, morals are set of agreed upon definitions of what is wrong and what is right.
On the other hand, social ethics are well-defined codes of conduct that need to be followed, especially by professionals in their fields of practice. For instance, lawyers are required to obey their profession ethical requirements, however this is not necessarily morality but it is the defined code of conduct that has to be followed by professions in this field to execute their obligations as desired by the stakeholders. Therefore, morals are inclined on belief systems on what is right and wrong, while ethics are codes of conduct designed to make processes work better.
Q. 2 what are the consequences of not looking at various perspectives and the interests of other people involved, while making a responsible ethical decision?
In the first place, making decisions without considering the perspectives and interests of other stakeholders is in itself unethical. Responsible ethical decision-making is one that takes a broader perspective and considers the viewpoints and needs of every stakeholder. The consequence of not adhering to a broader perspective that incorporates the viewpoint of every stakeholder is that rather than ethical insights, indoctrination is one that results. Long-term conflict between parties that hold opposing views may ensue as a result (Frederick, 1999).
Q.3 briefly highlight the problems associated with utilitarian thinking
Utilitarian thinking validates the common misconception that the end results or final outcome justifies the means. Utilitarianism is a consequential theory; this means an act is justified based on a person’s consideration of the consequences (Scarre, 2002). However, the problem that stems from using utilitarianism is that consequences cannot always be predicted correctly. In addition, there is the problem of what counts as happiness or vague because utilitarianism refers to both the same way. However, there is need to conceptualize a universal definition of happiness because the idea of pleasure is vague to say the least. Utilitarian approach to thinking fails to pay attention to special relationships between family and friends and puts every affected individual into the same category.
Q.4 what are the differences between an effective leader and an ethical leader?
Leadership refers to the ability to motivate and influence others towards attainment of a specific objective. An effective leader preaches a given approach and acts differently; on the other hand, an ethical leader preaches a given approach and follows it to the latter. Therefore, an ethical leader is one who understands and is committed to defined leadership codes and core values. For instance, ethical leaders respect confidentiality and have integrity. On the contrary, an effective leader is one who pursues a specific objective using all necessary means even if they are detrimental to others (Lencioni, 2002). Effective leaders fail to follow value ethics where an opportunity for quick person gains arises. For instance, in a business setting if it means bribing authorities to evade taxes, they are ready to do so in order to maximize profits.
Q. 5 Philosophers distinguish between three different types of responsibilities on a scale from more to less demanding or binding. List and explain these responsibilities.
Philosophy recognizes different levels of responsibilities from the more to less demanding. The most demanding one is collective responsibility, a doctrine that states the community at large should be held responsible for other carefree individuals for ignoring, tolerating, and even harboring them (Stanford encyclopedia, 2012). Retrospective and prospective responsibilities are of the same level. The former is where a person is judged for his or her actions by being punished or blamed. Prospective responsibilities are those attached to a particular role. A wider view of responsibility helps us to explore the connection between legal and moral responsibility, and collective and individual responsibility. A wider perspective puts responsibility into political thought, which was its original philosophical use. Therefore, collective responsibility ranks as the most demanding, while individual responsibility is the least demanding.
Q. 6 what are the implications of sustainability in the Integrative Model of CSR?
Sustainability in the Integrative Model of the Corporate Social Responsibility enhances the ability of companies to achieve ethical standards and a balance of social, economic, and environmental imperatives (Frederick, 1999). This helps to address the expectations and concerns of stakeholders who are involved. For instance, as a business management approach, it helps to provide solid returns for the shareholders in the long run. Stakeholders such as suppliers are compensated on a timely basis for their service to the organization. The community benefits from quality goods and services and programs initiated to give back to the society, for instance contributions to charity and providing scholarships to bright and needy students. In addition, for a manufacturing business, it carries out its activities without causing harm to the environment through pollution and waste of natural resources.
Q. 7. Contrast the two dominant ethical perspectives on sweatshops.
Sweatshop is a term connoted negatively to refer to a working environment considered difficult, dangerous, and unacceptable according to international standards. There are two dominant ethical perspectives about sweatshops. On one hand, according to the international standards predominant in the developed nations, sweatshops perpetuate inequality in the sense that the owners of the production entities are exploiting workers (Frederick, 1999). As human beings, we are all equal and our purpose in this life is to survive and reproduce. However, the working conditions of sweatshops barely provide these basic needs. The workers earn peanuts and they can barely buy food for their families. They also have little time for pleasure to reproduce.
The other perspective holds the view that sweatshops are not operational at the cost of humanity. In fact, the desperate persons working in these sweatshops are hired voluntarily and they appreciate the job. They feel safer and pleasant than the alternative of being jobless and having to dig through piles of garbage and waste. This perspective is dominant in the third world developing countries where almost half of the population survives with less than a dollar a day. Therefore, these two dominant perspectives need to be respected. One has to analyze the world from a relative sense to understand beliefs of the both sides that hold differing opinions about sweatshops.
Q. 8 correlate the concepts of due process and ethics to the workplace
The legal requirement that a state respects legal rights owed to a person is called ‘due process’ (Orth, 2003). It helps to balance the powers of the government by protecting the citizens from it. Where a government fails to follow the due process and harms its citizen, then this is a due-process violation, an offense against the rule of law. On the other hand, Ethics entails systemizing, recommending, and defending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The two are correlated in the sense that they serve to guide both institutions and individuals from wrongdoing. For instance, in the work place scenario, due process guides the workers to adhere to the laid procedures of conducting business. Similarly, ethics serve the same purpose as it guides individuals to desist from moral wrongdoings. Concisely, the protection of due process constitute the moral/ethical system that serves to protect persons from the justice system, on the other hand, ethics cuts two ways.
Frederick, R. (1999). A companion to business ethics. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers.
Lencioni, P. (2002). The five dysfunctions of a team: a leadership fable. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.
Moral Responsibility (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-responsibility/
Kant # (1) (MORALITY, ETHICS & PHILOSOPHY LECTURES) - YouTube. (n.d.). YouTube. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q47lKczNtuI
Orth, J. V. (2003). Due process of law: a brief history. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas.
Scarre, G. (2002). Utilitarianism (Taylor & Francis e-Library ed.). London: Routledge.