This paper is on the topic of Emigration. The first section of this paper is on the topic of important people in the history of Emigration. The next section will compare how different countries are dealing with it and if it is an issue in the UAE. The following section will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Emigration. The final section will discuss the causes and solution to the issue of Emigration.
- Emigration is leaving one nation or region for settling in another. .
Heading: Historical Evidence
- Migration has always been a constant feature of the human history.
- Religious fundamentalism, increased xenophobia and homeland security barriers threaten the migrant movement.
- Similarly, the demand for migrant labour has increased for the old-age care or domestic work in the affluent countries.
Heading: Comparison of Countries dealing with Emigration
- The Chinese provide top-tier students in engineering and science with large number of benefits and incentives.
- Jamaican citizens who prefer to emigrate and work abroad have to pay remittance to their government.
- South Africa is working to keep their residents from leaving after they are done with their education and training.
- Iran is taking care and planning actions by creating many national foundations.
- In Saudi Arabia, most employers have traditionally recruited skilled and low-skilled labour from foreign countries.
Heading: Advantages and Disadvantages of Emigration
- The positive impacts on the host country are the job vacancies, skills gaps get filled, sustainable economic growth and many more.
- The negative impacts on the host country are depression of wages, exploitation of migrants and many more.
- Positive impact on the origin country is foreign aid, reduced unemployment and increase in savings.
- The negative impacts on the origin country loss of labours, social problems and many more.
Heading: Causes and Solutions
- Emigration is caused by the search for better social and economic opportunities.
- Creation of jobs, raising their incomes and generating the disciplined and efficient workforces.
Emigration is leaving one nation or region for settling in another. To emigrate is to move permanently and applies only to people. People emigrate from their country to another for several reasons this includes increasing their chance of employment and improving their quality of life. Emigration affects the host country and origin country’s economy, as when people leave their country lowers their country’s consumer spending and labour force. In another way, the country that receives emigrants benefits from the added workers, who contribute to their economy with increased consumer spending (McFadyen).
Migration has always been a constant feature of the human history; the term "homo migrans" has been ever present since the "homo sapiens". Global movements of emigration throughout the 20th century cannot be explained without linking them to other mass migrations across and within overseas or borders, or to intra- and interregional flow of labour involved in the processes of industrialization, urbanization and decolonization. During the turn of the 20th century, the religious fundamentalism, the increased xenophobia in several countries and the so-called homeland security barriers have started to threaten the freedom of migrant movement. Similarly, the demand for migrant labour has increased for the old-age care or domestic work in the affluent countries, just as most migrants are themselves desperately searching for entering into those societies that permits sustainable lives. Researched data indicate that growing disparities between the developed and developing countries because of the unequal terms of trade and the imposition of tariff barriers by the powerful countries. Thus, the pre-condition for migrations is being equipped by the policies of many countries that are now unwilling to allow more migrants (Lüthi).
Comparison of Countries dealing with Emigration
The Chinese Government is working hard for reversing the emigration trend, they have started to provide top-tier students in engineering and science with large number of benefits and incentives, yet Chinese emigration numbers are growing larger every year.
Jamaican citizens who prefer to emigrate and work abroad have to pay remittance to their government. Even with the additional fees, many Jamaican students are still choosing to move abroad and aren’t enticed into stay and work in Jamaica. Despite a high level of attention has been given to this issue in the past few years; little difference can be seen in Jamaica. Currently, South Africa is working on keeping their residents from leaving after they are done with their education and training. They are also working hard to attract professionals from countries to come and work for South African businesses. In 1980s, the emigration of Iranians was ridiculed by the government officials, these days Iran is taking care and planning actions to keep their skilled labours and professionals at home by creating many national foundations that are aimed at improving the conditions of the students in sciences and increasing their graduate programs (Online Universities).
In Saudi Arabia, the trend of emigration has been less of a concern as their local population is not sufficient to meet the manpower needs that are necessary for their businesses and projects. Most employers have traditionally recruited skilled and low-skilled labour from foreign countries. Several Southeast and South Asians have migrated to Saudi Arabia in the past and still do. Migration of the Asian workers is especially encouraged in Saudi Arabia as in comparison to the Arab foreign workers, these Asians are less likely to settle and less likely to organize and are easier to control (Pakkiasamy).
Advantages and Disadvantages of Emigration
Emigration carries its benefits for the host country and the country of origin as one of the countries looses their citizen and the other gains a new citizen. The positive impacts on the host country are the job vacancies and the skills gaps get filled, sustainable economic growth, services to the ageing population can be maintained if there is a young population locally, pension gap can also be filled with the contributions made by new young workers, young new workers pay taxes, immigrants bring innovation and energy, host nation are enriched by their cultural diversity and school with falling numbers can also be transformed.
The negative impacts on the host country are depression of wages is possible, exploitation of migrants, pressures on public services, rising unemployment, friction between locals and migrants, security troubles, facilitate organized crime and people trafficking.
Positive impact on the origin country developing nations gain benefits from the remittances that are even larger than the foreign aid, reduced unemployment and increase in savings, contacts and skills. The negative impacts on the origin country are the economic disadvantages through loss of labours, loss of the highly trained people, especially in science, health and management and social problems for the children who are left behind to grow up without their wider family circle (embraceni.org).
Causes and Solutions
Since the dawn of mankind, emigration is caused by the search for better social and economic opportunities. The economic emigration is the fastest growing group of emigrants in the world. With globalization, there has been an increase in the mobility of labour and decline in the working-age populations and fertility in several developed countries has led to rising demand of workers from other countries to sustain the national economies. Over the years new patterns of emigration have emerged as several countries that use to once send their nationals abroad have now started to experience migrant inflows as well.
In recent years, several countries, especially China and India that has exported thousands of their brightest for many decades, have now started to reverse the trend. This is being done with effectively managing this Diaspora of capacity development with the creation of jobs, raising their incomes and generating the disciplined and efficient workforces that in turn provide with a platform for opportunities and economic growth. The policy makers can approach the issue of emigration in two ways; they can either try to reverse their flow of highly-skilled individuals by diminishing their net loss of emigration or they can try to reverse the consequences of emigration rather than emigration itself (The World Bank).
Emigration of educated and skilled workers from one country to another is due to the lack of possibilities or opportunities in home country. It is obvious that emigration can be beneficial for the migrants, but this is possible only when their rights are protected in the host nation. Emigration can be beneficial economically for both the origin and host countries; however, with the present trading and economic structures it is beneficial for the powerful and rich countries. Emigration brings cultural and social pressures that should be taken off while planning for the future services. This phenomenon has affected several countries adversely, especially in developing countries, where the retaining capacity is more important issue than the development of capacity.
Emigration: The act of leaving one’s own country to settle permanently in another; moving abroad.
Industrialization: It is the process that happens in countries when they start to use machines to do work that was once done by people.
Urbanization: Urbanization is the increasing number of people that live in urban areas.
Fundamentalism: A form of a religion, especially Islam or Protestant Christianity, that upholds belief in the strict, literal interpretation of scripture:
Decolonization: Process by which colonies become independent of the colonizing country.
Xenophobia: an unreasonable fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers or of that which is foreign or strange.
Trafficking: Trafficking involves transporting people away from the communities in which they live and forcing them to work against their will using violence, deception or coercion.
Remittances: A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in his or her home country.
Diaspora: a group of people who live outside the area in which they had lived for a long time or in which their ancestors lived.
Consumer spending: Consumer spending or consumer demand or consumption is also known as personal consumption expenditure.
McFadyen, J. Emigrate. About Immigration Issues. About.com. Web. 2014
Lüthi, B. Migration and Migration History. Docupedia-Zeitgeschichte. docupedia.de. 2010. Web. 2014
Online Universities. 10 Countries Facing the Biggest Brain Drain. Online Universities. onlineuniversities.com. 2011. Web. 2014
Pakkiasamy, D. Saudi Arabia's Plan for Changing Its Workforce. Migration Policy Institute. migrationpolicy.org. 2004, Web. 2014
Embraceni. The Pros and Cons of Migration. Embraceni: Building a welcoming community. embraceni.org. Web. 2014
The World Bank. Engaging the Diaspora to Deal with Brain Drain. Worldbank. worldbank.org. Web 2014